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Outline Of Chapter 6: Accommodating Student Variability In "Psychology Applied To Teaching" 11th Edition By: Jack Snowman And Robert Biehler

7483 words - 30 pages

Chapter 6Accommodating Student VariabilityThis chapter will describe different ways to deal w/ student variability. Teachers can expect to have a wide variety of students who differ in abilities, talents, & backgrounds. The reasons for such diversity include compulsory attendance laws, patterns of immigration, & laws that govern which students can & cannot be placed in special classes. Other factors include normal variations in physical, social, emotional, & cognitive development.I. Historical DevelopmentsA. The Growth of Public Education & Age-Graded ClassroomsBy 1920 variability had become an issue.1. Schools became diverse becausea. by 1918 all states had passed ...view middle of the document...

3. The first part of this chapter will look at current applications of ability grouping, which nowadays takes several forms & is still used to reduce the normal range of variability in cognitive ability & achievement in a typical classroom.C. Special Education1. Compulsory laws brought to school many children w/ severe mental & physical disabilities. These students were deemed incapable of profiting from any type of normal classroom instruction & were assigned to special schools. Unfortunately, labeling students as mentally retarded or physically disabled often resulted in their receiving a significantly inferior education.2. This chapter will detail the varied types & degrees of special class placement for children whose intellectual, social, emotional, or physical development falls outside (above as well as below) the range of normal variation.3. Particular attention is given to Public Law (PL) 101-476, the Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which was enacted to counter past excess of special class placement & to encourage the placement of children w/ disabilities in regular classes.II. Ability GroupingAbility grouping is a widespread practice. In the elementary grades, virtually all teachers use some form of separate grouping w/in their classrooms for instruction in reading & many do so for math as well. In the middle grades, some form of ability grouping exists in approximately two-thirds to three-fourths of schools in one or more subjects on the basis of standardized test scores. This proportion rises to about 85 percent at the high school level. This section describes the most common ways in which teachers group students by ability, examines the assumptions that provide the rationale for this practice, summarizes research findings on the effectiveness of ability grouping, & looks at alternative courses of action.A. Types of Ability Groups (four)1. Between-class ability grouping. Students are separated into ability groups (homogeneous) in different classes throughout the day by achievement or intelligence test scores.a. There are usually three levels (high, average, & low), which appear in high school as tracking. The tracks have been labeled academic (or college preparatory), vocational, & general. Currently, these terms have been replaced by designations as advanced (honors), regular, & basic.b. The rationale is that separation allows teachers at each level to address the needs of their students in terms of pacing, autonomy, task difficulty, & so forth.2. Regrouping. These plans are more flexible in assignments & narrower in scope than between-class plans.a. Regrouping involves bringing homogeneous students together for only a subject or two (such as mathematics or reading) & keeping them in heterogeneous classes the rest of the day.b. Children can change groups as their test scores change.c. There are two disadvantages of regrouping:(1) the need for cooperative...

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