ii) List of Tables
1) Womenâ€™s position in world production
2) Women in the Bangladesh labour market
3) Background of garments in Bangladesh
4) Socio-economic profile of female garments workers in garment industry
5) Reasons for womenâ€™sâ€™ involvement in garment work
6) Expenditure and absorption of womenâ€™s wages in the household economy
7) Working conditions
GoB: Government of ...view middle of the document...
4: Job positions
Table 3.5: Years of work
Table 3.6: Monthly income (salary + overtime)
Table 6.1: Use of Wage
The data used in this study is data from a research study conducted jointly by PI Professor Kathryn B Ward, Department of Sociology, Southern Illinois University (SIU) and Professor Nashid Kamal (co-PI) and head of the Department of Population-Environment, Independent University Bangladesh (IUB). The study was funded by National Science Foundation (NFS). The study period was from March 2004 to August 2005.
For sampling the garment workers, Wahab Colony in Dhaka, Bangladesh (where many garment workers reside) was used as a sampling frame. Snowball method was used to gather random samples in equal proportion in the age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25 years and above.
A full fledged team of twelve field workers, along with one supervisor for every three field workers (one for each group) and an overall research assistant worked for this research project under the guidance of the PI and co-PI. The data was collected from women who worked and resided in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.
Womenâ€™s position in world production
One of the most striking labour market trends of recent times is the growing proportion of women in the international labour force. This trend globally initiated from the 1980s and has resulted in the highest number of women ever involved in the international labour market. The Gender Employment Trends (GET) for Women BRIEF, March 2007, of the International Labour Office (ILO), stated that â€œin absolute numbers, more women than ever before are participating in labour markets worldwide. They are either in work or actively looking for a job.â€ It further states that â€œmore women than ever before are actually in work.â€ This trend of womenâ€™s integration in production, when initially recognized, gave rise to expectations that the greater economic independence acquired by women in production would help bridge the gender gap.
At the global scale, the total female labour force, which comprises of both employed and unemployed women of working age, has increased to almost 1.2 billion in 2006 from 1.1 million in 1996. Though, the gender gap in production has decreased by nearly 1%, the proportion of female labour participation in the global labour market has actually decreased from 53.0% in 1996 to 52.4 % in 2006 (GET 2006).This decrease is attributed to growing number of women around the world entering education and to the higher rates of womenâ€™s participation in the labour market than ten years earlier.
Regional trends in womenâ€™s labour market involvement vary extensively. The table below displays some of these regional trends in womenâ€™s economic participation and the regional gender imbalances.
Male and female labour force participation rates (%) and the gender gap in economically active females per 100 males, 2006