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P1 Explain The Principal Psychological Perspectives

2488 words - 10 pages

Behaviorist perspectives:
The behaviorist principle is based on how we learn from the environment. Classical conditioning is learning through association and operant condition is learning through consequences. Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), who worked with dogs. They were 4 components that made up his experiment. Unconditioned stimuli (UCS), which refer to anything that naturally, has the power to produce a response in an organism. Unconditioned stimuli is one you would not learn to respond too. Unconditioned response (UCR) is a natural reflex response to unconditioned stimuli. Conditioned stimuli are that the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned ...view middle of the document...

Skinners study showed negative reinforcement where the rat would get an electric shock on the current floor until they pressed the lever.
Social learning:
In society another person’s behavior may affect other individuals. According to this theory role models play a big part in society. If an individual observes a role model on TV or magazines getting rewards, fame, money, popularity then behavior of those role models is likely to be imitated. If we observe someone in the media or in magazines we look up too, we retain their behavior and reproduce it when we have the motivation to do so. For example, if we observe a size 0 model on TV and we see that she gets admired, respected, fame and fortune we are more likely to imitate their behavior.
The social learning theory suggests that people live within a culture and society and that behavior is affected by their experiences within society, where they are members of a certain group. Also, by identifying oneself as a member of a group (e.g. girls, boys etc.), a person can become prejudiced against each other. Also, its not just the people and groups, that affect behavior but the social situation itself. For example, if you’re with your friends you wouldn’t mind raising a topic about religion but in a business meeting in another country you wouldn’t comment.
The self-fulfilling prophecy states that when an individual is given a label within society, they carry it around with them and behave in a way that society has expected them to behave. This theory states that individuals behave a certain way because of the label they have been given. Self-fulfilling prophecy can have positive impact or a negative impact on a person’s behavior. For example, if someone is always angry and moody then we are more likely to say that that person is aggressive and hostile.
Role theory is similar to self-fulfilling prophecy. However it is based on the roles we are given within the culture and society that we live in. for example, if a woman takes her children to a theme park she is playing a role of a mother but if the same woman goes out for lunch with other people, she is playing the role of being a friend.
Social learning theory is learning through observation. An individual will learn anew behavior by watching others and then imitating them. A person can learn new behaviors through the TV, video games, magazines etc. and observe these peoples behavior and copy it. This is known as observational learning which was developed by a well-known psychologist albert bandura. Role models are the people we look up too and watching and imitating their behavior is known as modeling. If role models behavior is successful we are more motivated to imitate their behavior, however, if the role models get punished for their behavior then the behavior is less likely to copied or imitated.
Psychodynamic theory:
Sigmund Freud believed that early life experiences had an impact for how we develop our personality and as an...

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