Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Health and Social Care
Unit 7: Sociological perspectives for health and social care
P1- Explain the principle sociological perspectives
Sociology is concerned with the way individuals and groups operate within society and the way in which groups interact with each other. There are different sociological perspectives which provide models of society. In this assignment I will be explaining the different sociological perspectives which provide different models of society.
Functionalism looks at social structures and the role they have in society. They believe that each social structure is essential for interests of society. For example, a ...view middle of the document...
Criticsâ€™ state that this theory gives little freedom to individuals as the emphasis is on conflict; however, not every society is in conflict all the time. As Marxism considers that conflict is normal, it comes under criticism for this because under Marxism, social class play an important role and are central to Marxist thinking.
They also believe that economics is at the basis of social life and progress is made through the struggle between social classes. The ruling class is based on ownership. According to Marxism the bourgeoisie are the powerful class in society who own the factories, land and other capital and able to organise the economy and other important institutions in society to their own advantage. On the other hand, the proletariat are the â€˜working classâ€™ who have only their labour to sell. They work for and are exploited by the bourgeoisie.
Interactionists differs from functionalism, Marxism and most feminist theories in that it focuses on small scale interaction rather than society as a whole. It usually rejects the notion of a response or reaction to the system. Interactionism analyses society systematically and believes that it is possible to improve society.
Interactionism recognises that individuals are not just passive but have a role within society, but they fails to acknowledge why some groups have the power to label others or put constraints on individuals. They see our behaviour as driven by the way we interpret situations, how we see ourselves and other people and how they see us. In the family, a mother may understand what is expected of a â€˜goodâ€™ mother but interactionists theorists think that social roles are not clearly defined. They believe that the mother will interpret what that means for her in the context of her family, her relationship with her children, and her links with the wider society. There is no blueprint, for interactionism, the main aim is to understand how people interpret situations and behave in small group face to face situations. Rather thanâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦
Feminism examines social experiences from the viewpoint of women. Generally feminism provides a critique of other theories which, it considers and looks at society only from the viewpoint of males and makes women invisible within society. Feminism has two main roles, one being to address the balance and examine society from a female point of view. For example, how womenâ€™s opportunities are restricted in society and to explore womenâ€™s lives, often neglected by sociological studies.
There are also three different types of feminism which look at specific aspects of women in society; they are Marxist feminism, radical feminism and liberal feminism. Feminism believes that gender inequality in society is not natural or functional and is a result of patriarchy. This gives an imbalance of...