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Pathogenicity And Cellular Structure Essay

540 words - 3 pages

Pathogenicity and Cellular Structure
Rebecca Abell
Unit 2 Assignment 1

Pathogenicity and Cellular Structure
When a human gets sick have you ever thought about how that occurs on a cellular level? Our body is made up with many different types of microorganisms and one of them is called bacteria. There are good bacteria and bad bacteria. When the bad bacterium multiplies with in the human body it causes what is known as bacterial infections.
Although a bacterium is a microorganism it also has several cellular structures. The structures with in bacteria that cause us to become ill are Fimbriae, Plasmid, and the Capsule. Only the bacteria that contain these three structures can cause disease in a human body. When a bacterium includes the trouble causing structures the disease process starts spreading ...view middle of the document...

The Plasmid contains DNA and produces exotoxin which makes it resistant from other bacteria. These three structures are what help protect the bacteria and help it cause disease. Bacteria need to attach to a host so it can obtain energy and nourishment to survive.
Even though all three is needed the most important one is the Capsule. The capsule is also known as a glycocalyx and produces a coating of polysaccharide slime. It is located outside the cell wall and uses the biofilm to move in and out of the preferred environment. “In nature, and in many medical situations, colonies of bacteria construct and live in a biofilm, made up principally of capsule material. A biofilm usually consists of a consortium (mixture) of bacteria living in a matrix of slime which is secreted by one of the bacterial members. DENTAL plaque is an example of a natural biofilm, as is a slimy mass of bacteria attached to a rock in a mountain stream. In medical situations, bacteria in a biofilm may have certain advantages over planktonic counterparts. For example, biofilm bacteria may be less susceptible to phagocytosis, drugs, or neutralizing antibodies.
Many polysaccharide capsules possess an antigenic epitope so they will induce and react with host antibodies. Where the capsule is a main determinant of virulence of a pathogen (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae) antibodies against the bacterium neutralize its virulence.”(Todar, 2008-2012) In order to prevent bacterial infection it is important to understand how they work and the different structures help the bacteria.

References
Todar, Kenneth PhD.(2008-2012). Bacterial Structure in Relationship to Pathogincity. Retrieved from Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/BSRP_2.html
Todar, Kenneth PhD.(2008-2012).Sructure and Function of Bacterial Cells.Retrieved from Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/images/kt_top_banner.jpg

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