Perspectives Of Personality
There are many theories of personality, they have been grouped into four basic perspectives: psychoanalytic, humanistic, social cognitive, and traits. The psychoanalytic perspective focused on the importance of the unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. The psychoanalytic perspective suggests that there is a structure to the mind which includes the id, ego, and superego. The id is the completely unconscious, irrational component of the personality. It is not affected by logic, values, morality, danger, or the demands of the external world. The ego is the semi-conscious rational part of the personality and the superego is the ...view middle of the document...
Raymond Cattrell identified sixteen personality traits he believed could be used to understand and measure individual differences in personality. It was Robert Mccrae and Paul Costa who introduced ‘The Big Five" theory. This theory identifies five key dimensions of personality: extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience. (Hockenbury, D.H. & S.E.,2014 pg 441-442)
The Three Theory Comparison
Personality development has been a significant topic of interest in the field of psychology. Personalities are what make us unique. Many theorists developed theories that describe different stages that occur in the development of personality. Some theories that focus on the different aspects of personality development include psychoanalytic, humanistic, and trait perspectives.
Freud's theory of personality "stresses the importance of unconscious forces, sexual and aggressive instincts and early childhood experience" (Hockenbury, 2014). According to Freud, every person possesses a particular amount of psychological energy. This energy develops into three structures of personality: id, ego, and superego. These identities are not separate, they are just distinct psychological processes. Freud's ideas have had a lasting impact on our culture and an understanding of human nature. Although Freud has such a huge impact on psychology and society, there are several criticisms of his theory of psychoanalytic personality. Freud's theory only uses a small number of patients that he never recorded detail information of the data and from self analysis. It is not possible to use Freud's data due to insufficient evidence, lack of testability, as well as in was thought that his theories reflected sexism. (Hockenbury, D.H. & S.E.,2014 pp 442-443)
Another theory is that of Carl Rogers. Humanistic theory "emphasizes human potential and such unique characteristics such as self-awareness and free will" (Hockenbury, 2014). Unlike Freud's view, Humanistic psychologists saw people as being good. Rogers' idea of the self concept which is perceptions and beliefs that one has about himself. Like Freud, "Rogers believed that feelings and experiences could be driven from consciousness by being denied or distorted" (Hockenbury, 2014). However, Rogers believed that feelings are denied or distorted not because they are threatening, but rather they contradict the self-concept. The humanistic perspective has been criticized by the theories being hard to validate or test and psychologists believe that the humanistic point of view is too optimistic. (Hockenbury, D.H. & S.E., 2014 pp 433-436)
The third theory is the trait theory of Robert MCcrae And Paul Costa. The trait theories of personality focus on identifying, describing and measuring individual differences. Many believed Cattrell's trait model was too complex and that Eysenck's theory was too...