Philosophy Midterm Review sheet
Branches of Philosophy
Metaphysics - the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology. A treatise (4th century b.c.) by Aristotle, dealing with first principles, the relation of universals to particulars, and the teleological doctrine of causation.
Epistemology - The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.
Ethics - that branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of ...view middle of the document...
Utilitarianism - A system of ethics according to which the rightness or wrongness of an action should be judged by its consequences. The goal of utilitarian ethics is to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Jeremy Bentham, an English philosopher, was the founder of utilitarianism; John Stuart Mill was its best-known defender.
Schools of Philosophical Thought cont:
Platonism - The philosophy of Plato, especially insofar as it asserts ideal forms as an absolute and eternal reality of which the phenomena of the world are an imperfect and transitory reflection.
Aristotelianism - the philosophy of Aristotle. Emphasis upon deduction and upon investigation of concrete and particular things and situations.
Stoicism - A philosophy that flourished in ancient Greece and Rome. Stoics believed that people should strictly restrain their emotions in order to attain happiness and wisdom; hence, they refused to demonstrate either joy or sorrow.
Periods of Thought
Pre-socratic - of or pertaining to the philosophers or philosophical systems of the period before the Socratic period. Any philosopher of this period
Classical – Socrates, Plato, Artist, & Post-artist
Neo-Platonic - A philosophical system developed at Alexandria in the third century A.D. by Plotinus and his successors. It is based on Platonism with elements of mysticism and some Judaic and Christian concepts and posits a single source from which all existence emanates and with which an individual soul can be mystically united.
Early Christian –
Renaissance – the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world
Reformation - the religious movement in the 16th century that had for its object the reform of the Roman Catholic Church, and that led to the establishment of the Protestant churches.
Scholasticism - the system of theological and philosophical teaching predominant in the Middle Ages, based chiefly upon the authority of the church fathers and of Aristotle and his commentators.
Modern – the new science that started asking new questions, not just offering new answers to old problems
Early British Empiricism - refers to the 18th century philosophical movement in Great Britain which maintained that all knowledge comes from experience. Continental Rationalists maintained that knowledge comes from foundational concepts known intuitively through reason, such as innate ideas
Pythagoras - Greek philosopher and mathematician who theorized that numbers constitute the essence of all natural things. He developed the Pythagorean theorem and was one of the first to apply mathematical order to observations of the stars. Greek philosopher, mathematician, and religious reformer.
Heraclitus – Early Greek philosopher who maintained that strife and change are the natural conditions of the universe