University of Phoenix Material
Field | Definition | Historical Developments | Schools Of Thought | Key Contributors | Principal Issues |
Epistemology | The study of knowledge: What constitutes knowledge, the nature of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible | Pre-Socratics observe and seek to define physical phenomena.Socrates studied human behavior and tried to determine the essential nature of knowledge.Aristotle sought to categorize his observations.The Scientific RevolutionNewtonian influencesFreudian influence | SkepticismRealismConceptualismNominalismEmpiricismRationalismAbsolute ...view middle of the document...
Roman influence: Epicureanism and StoicismEthics become ChristianizedThe Age of Reason | Ethical skepticismDescriptive RelativismEgoismHedonismEpicureanismStoicism | PlatoAristotleEpicurusZenoEpictetusAugustineHildegard of BingenAquinasHobbesHumeKantBenthamMill | What is a moral judgment?What is morally right or wrong? |
Social | The study of society and its institutions, including what would make up an ideal society. | Greek democracyNatural law becomes Christianized and is seen as the moral law of God.Environmental concernsSocial justice | Natural LawContractarian theoryEnvironmental philosophy | AugustineAquinasHobbesRousseauSmithTaylorMillMooreRawlsNussbaum | How should goods be distributed in a society?Do people have natural rights? |
Political | The study of the state, its justification, and how to organize it ethically | Greek democracyPlato’s RepublicSocial contractSeparation of power | DemocracyConstitutional TheoryClassic LiberalismMarxismAnarchismLibertarianismObjectivism | PlatoAristotleMachiavelliLockeHegelMarxNozickRand | What form of political state is best?Can a government restrict the liberty of its citizens? |
Structuralism | The study of the rules and conventions of the language and cultural mythology that govern large social systems | Saussure applied linguistics to epistemology.Levi-Strauss applied Saussure’s methods to cultural mythology. | Semiotics | SaussureLevi-Strauss | Study of the deep structure of language |
Deconstruction | The study of the assumptions about language, including the certainty, identity, and truth of text | Derrida argued against structuralism. | Free play of signifiers | Derrida | Seeks to expose assumptions about language and multiple meaningsLiterary criticism |
Eastern | The study of the philosophical traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism | Vedic cultureTravels of Confucius and Lao TzuSpread of Buddhism from India to China & JapanSpread of IslamTranscendentalists embrace Eastern thoughtParliament of World Religions begins spread of Eastern thought in America | Hinduism: Vedas, UpanishadsBuddhism: Four Noble Truths, Eightfold PathTaoismConfucianismIslamic philosophy | SivanandaRamakrishnaVivekanandaYoganandaTagoreSri AurobindoGandhiMaharishi Mahesh YogiShri AmritanandamayiSiddhartha GautamaDalai LamaThich Nhat HanhPema ChodronLao TzuConfuciusAvicennaAverroes | Self-realizationUnity of mind and bodyHarmony of man and environment |
Postcolonial | The synthesis of the disciplines of philosophy with the indigenous cultures of Africa, the Americas, and Asia | Colonization during the 18th and 19th centuriesAs countries gained freedom, their thinkers sought social justice and recognition. | Pan-African philosophyAfrican-American thoughtLatin American thought | SenghorHountondjiTutuKingHooks (Watkins)WestAstradaQuesadaGandhi | Social justicePreservation of oral history and traditionLiberation of all peoples |
FeminismFeminism(Continued) | The study of the...