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Phobias & Addictions Essay

1225 words - 5 pages

Phobias and Addictions
Society is unaware that there are big numbers of individuals who suffer from addictions and phobias. Addictions and phobias are usually joined since individuals with addictions normally begin with a phobia they were unaware of. Addictions and phobias are separated into different groups of conditioning involving the effects each individual. The separate groups are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning happens when individuals discover how they should respond to a stimulus within their atmosphere. Operant conditioning occurs when an individual responds only to a penalty or reward. According to Kowalski & Westen (2011), “Learning ...view middle of the document...

161). There are also phobic incidences involving spiders and snakes that can trigger phobias that begin from natural awareness. Individuals are surprisingly bound to be afraid of a particular trauma, objects, or motivated by genetics.
Explore how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning
Addictions are a controlled behavior including the wanting and needing of something in particular. Many individuals realize the addictions can cause unsympathetic consequences, yet the individual, because of the addicted state will continue with this behavior. Additionally, the majority of addictions begin with a fulfilling participation involving something and the desires to recreate or prolong the act. The addictive individual displays no self-discipline and shows no regard that the result can be damaging to the person individually. According to Grant, Potenza, Weinstein & Gorelick, (2010), an addicted individual will go to great lengths to familiarize themselves with the cravings and desires that are needed to connect with a certain behavior until a feeling of relief has overtaken that person.
Furthermore, operant conditioning is regulated by the environment while making use of the reinforcement or punishment toward good or bad behavior. Addictions go all out for instant satisfaction from a person’s impulses. While there are various types of addictions, operant conditioning also places emphasis on behaviors that are voluntary.
Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning
The reaction from an individual toward an environmental stimulus is known as classical conditioning. A classical conditioning study by Rosalie Rayne and John Watson provides a great example. A young child participated in the study who before the study displayed no reaction to white rats since the rats were an impersonal stimulus. Throughout the conditioning, the child was taught to display panic and fear when he saw the white rats. During the study, one of the researchers made a harsh sound that scared the child. Of course, after the noise was heard, the child began crying, and his reaction was known as fear. Later on in the study after placing a white rate within the area of vision of the child, the researcher made another loud noise. The child again began to cry. The study was performed numerous times, and the researchers came to the conclusion that the child, because of his fear, would cry when he could see the white rate. The study was able to show how fear can be created within a human and how it would relate with the principles of classical conditioning.
In addition, operant behavior fluctuates since it is constrained by the environment using
punishment or reinforcement toward good or bad behaviors. Even though operant conditioning uses punishment and reinforcement, punishment is not as influenced as much as reinforcement when it comes to addictions. Throughout our reading, Kowalski & Westen shares a study of a cat...

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