Word length effect is the finding that the longer the words are that people need to remember, the fewer they can remember (Baddeley, Thompaon & Buchanan, 1975). In our research findings, there are three hypotheses; including letters that sound similar will be remembered worse than words sound dissimilar. Long words are remembered worse than short words. With long words presumably being more subject to error than are short words. Longer words are assumed to take more time to articulate, hence allowing a greater degree of forgetting, either from trace decay or from interference (Baddeley, 2001). Words that took longer to pronounce were associated with a lower level of recall. Trace decay model an articulatory loop show that memory span is determined by rehearsal speed. However, longer words are subjected to poorer recall; there is no significant ...view middle of the document...
Phonological similarity effect is the finding that memory is poorer when people need to remember a set of words that are phonologically similar, compared to a set of words that are phonologically dissimilar (Baddeley, 1966,; Conrad & Hull, 1964). Moreover, the semantically meaningful to particular people may better remember those words. Access to lexical meaning in retrieval may be an important component of memory span performance (Lalor, 2000). Immunity to proactive interference at very short retention intervals is related to the availability of phonemic codes (Tehan & Humphreys, 1995, 1998). If there are letters sound similar, they will exert an influence on memory span. The word length effect does play an important role in establishing the occurrences of the phenomenon. An alternative explanation of the word effect has been presented by G.D.P. Brown and Hulme (1995), who assume that long words are more vulnerable to forgetting because they have more components (Baddeley, 2001). It is presumably necessary to retrieve the constituent items before they can be rehearsed, with long words presumably being more subject to error than are short words. Memory span is smaller for a) items taking longer to pronounce and b) phonologically more similar items (Chase, 1977).
Formula: s=rt (where s=span, r=pronunciation rate, t=time)
Magic number 7+/-2 showing the digit span that normal people showed. Seven was the general span for working memory. And some people could remember plus or minus two items (Ashcraft, 2010). Digit Span Test including two parts, Digits Forward and Digits Backward. Forward digit span would be controlled by the phonological loop, involved in the temporary storage and maintenance of speech-based material, and the central executive is mainly responsible for the reversed order recall (i.e., backward digit span). Besides, many studies have pointed out that age and education are the main variables that will affect the adequate performance on the Digit Span task. (Ostroky-Solis & Lozano, 2006)