POPULATION OF INDIA
Man is the creator of all the wealth, said Karl Marx, and without man, all other resources remain ideal. Thus, man is the central focus points of all development efforts. Man produces wealth and wealth is produced for the use of mankind. Hence, population of a country is a crucial factor in the development of its economy. The literal meaning of population is “the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region”. Among the countries, India ranks second in population and seventh in land area. It has 15% of the population and 2.3% of the area of the world. India’s national income which is barely two percent of the total global income clearly shows the ...view middle of the document...
Unfortunately, the death rate is declining, and there are reasonable chances that it will continue to decline owing to continuing improvements in the sanitary and health conditions of the masses. This implies that if birth rate does not fall, the gap between birth and death rates will continue to widen and India will be faced with the danger of a rapidly increasing multitude, or what is often called the “population explosion”. Thus rapidly increasing population of India is a result of prevailing high birth rates and a large decline in the death rate.
Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)
The resources do not increase as the population increases. India currently faces a vicious cycle of population explosion and poverty. One of the most Important reasons for this population increases in India is poverty. Due to poverty, the infant mortality rate among such families like food and medical resources. Thus, they produce more children assuming that not all of them would be able to survive. The end result is a mounting increase in the population size of India. The practice of early marriage is another factor for continues increase in birth rate. A large majority of girls in India are married during the most fertile period 15 and18 years of age. This gives a wider reproductive period and continues to high birth rate. Widespread ‘improvident maternity’ (child bearing by mothers who have already borne three or more children) and lack of conscious family planning have also kept birth rate in India very high.
Death rate in India has declined over the past few decades due to a number of factors such as the control of epidemics, due to widespread increase in medical and health facilities. Many dreaded diseases of the past like malaria and TB have been brought under control while smallpox, etc. have been completely eradicated. Therefore, it is clear that India is passing through a period of ‘population explosion’ due to her continuing high birth rate and a sharp fall in the death rate.
Due to increased population, the educational facilities are very scarce. A lot of families prefer having a son rather than a daughter. As a result, a lot of families have more children than they actually want or can afford, resulting in increased poverty, lack of resources, and most importantly, an increased population. Hence, illiteracy and lack of awareness creates a thought that having more children, will give a secure future to the parents and the society, but, what is the use if the children themselves do not get the desired facilities? What is the use, if they will be the burden for the society? The answer lies within. They can serve the country only if they get the desired facilities like food, shelter and most importantly-“Education”. With the spread of education and family consciousness, it is expected that more and more people will take recourse to birth control measures thus reducing the birth rate in future.
India, being a developing...