1. Explain with examples, «positive discrimination» and «affirmative action».
Positive discrimination can be define as process or principle according to which the preference, especially in employment, education or business is given to the minority groups of society that have been subjected to discrimination in the past by by reason of gender, race, ethnic, disability, religious prejudices and etc (Longman, 1992). The idea is to provide such group with special help to attain essential representation. This preferential treatment ensures equal opportunities for those marginalized in society. It does not mean that they will automatically be preferred to other candidate, but if both candidates ...view middle of the document...
Affirmative action may be presented in many different ways. Such as quotas, preferential selection, preferential consideration, and additional support or access schemes such as college scholarships and bursaries among other things. They can be implemented in the private or public sector and used by governments and political parties, different businesses and educational institutions in many countries. (idebate.org)
Under the international law you cannot discriminate against somebody because of their race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background,religious or political beliefs, but
positive discrimination laws vary in each country. For example, Indian low set quotas for citizens in lower castes and for some religious groups defined as minorities. The aim of this low is to correct years of possible injustice based on social or economic status. This low do not extend positive discrimination to women, but forbid to discriminate against them.
In United Kingdom positive discrimination is illegal, and it regulates by Equality Act (2010). This law was designed to help people to achieve equal opportunities and fair treatment in the workplace and in society. (ACAS)
In Canada affirmative action program set under it human rights laws. It applicable to women, aboriginal people, disabled and minorities. Law states that employers and companies receiving federal contracts regulated by government, must meet hiring quotas by law. Canadian officials hope to reduce or eliminate any potential disadvantage for particular groups of citizens. But this law does not apply to most private companies.(wisegeek.com)
2. Compare the different view points on «positive discrimination» and assess the reasons that these views are held.
The topic of positive discrimination is very arguable and has generated many legal and political disputes. At a first glance this policy were designed in good faith to improve economic and educational opportunities and to help make up for past discrimination and seems like a positive thing to help society, yet is accompanied by many different opinions. As with all big government policies, there are several unintended consequences both good and bad.
Supporters of positive discrimination reason that it is the best method to correct a history of discrimination against the social groups and attempt to redress the balance. They argue that it ia a tool for putting up of social justice.
Selection standards and procedures for promotion that conform to the ideals of positive discrimination have a tendency to hold that “women and minorities should be given a chance at better jobs if 'minimally' qualified, even though they may not be the 'best' qualified” (Beach, 1991). But in long–term perspective this category of discrimination could be considered as restoration of an otherwise unjust balance of historical mistakes and institutionalized disadvantages. The policy...