Post Tramatic Stress Disorder In Veterans Essay

5836 words - 24 pages

MILITARY MEDICINE, 180, 4:419, 2015

Overview of Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and
Alcohol Misuse Among Active Duty Service Members Returning
From Iraq and Afghanistan, Self-Report and Diagnosis
Sarah A. Mustillo, PhD*; Ashleigh Kysar-Moon, M A f; Susan R. Douglas, PhDp, Ryan Hargraves, MS±;
Shelley Mac Derm id Wadsworth, PhD*; Melissa Fraine, MPH§; Nicole L. Frazer, PhD§

ABSTRACT Previous studies have found deployment to combat areas to be associated with an increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse, but many previous studies were limited by samples that
were not representative of the deployed military as a whole. This ...view middle of the document...

A recent study
estim ated that 18.5% o f service m em bers returning from O IF/
O E F m eet the criteria for either post-traum atic stress disorder
(PTSD) or depression.1 In fact, research indicates sim ply being
deployed to Iraq or A fghanistan substantially increases risk
for PTSD, as well as having deployments longer than 180 days,
or serving in m ultiple tours.2'3 T o date, m any studies o f the
O IF and O EF populations have been conducted on lim ited or
unrepresentative sam ples, such as sam ples o f a small num ber
o f m ilitary bases, a single geographic area, one m ilitary branch,
m ost com m only the Arm y, convenience sam ples o f recently
deployed service m em bers, or help-seeking sam ples.4 Even
studies w ith large sam ples or sam ples with m ultiple branches
have been lim ited by lack o f representativeness o f respondents,
and representative surveillance data have lim ited information
on correlates o f disorder. This study includes linked self-report
and m edical records data from a population o f active duty
Arm y, A ir Force, N avy, and M arine Corps returning from

*Department of Sociology, University of Notre Dame, 810 Flanner Hall,
Notre Dame, IN 46556.
fDepartment of Sociology, Purdue University, 700 West State Street,
West Lafayette, IN 47907.
fVanderbilt University, Peabody No. 151,230 Appleton Place, Nashville,
TN 37203.
§Behavioral Health Branch, Clinical Support Directorate, Defense
Health Agency, 7700 Arlington Boulevard Falls Church, VA 22042.
The opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are
those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the Department
of Defense.
doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00335

M ILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 180, April 2015

deploym ent betw een D ecem ber 2007 and M arch 2009 and
focuses on branch- and deploym ent-related predictors of these
disorders. The results provide the m ost com prehensive and
representative exam ination to date o f patterns o f m ental health
self-reports and diagnoses across the entire m ilitary popula­
tion with specific attention to differences by service branch.
O f the m any overview studies conducted with post­
deploym ent military personnel, m ost find an increased risk of
m ental health sym ptom s or disorders, notably PTSD , depres­
sion, and alcohol m isuse.5~7 Factors associated w ith the
developm ent o f m ental health issues include exposure to
com bat, location o f deploym ent (e.g., Iraq vs. A fghanistan),
and the length o f tim e since deploym ent.3,7 Research indi­
cates that in addition to PTSD, the prevalence o f depression
am ong returning service m em bers is high, especially am ong
those who served in OIF, with about 15% -20% o f post­
deploym ent service m em bers m eeting the criteria for m ajor
depression diagnosis.s T here is some evidence that fem ales
are at increased risk for depression in com parison to m ales
follow ing deploym ent.3 H ow ever, a recent review o f m...

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