1.1Background to the Problem
Streptococcus Pneumoniae is the causative agent of lung disease Pneumonia. Pneumonia was described as early as two thousand five hundred years ago by the Hippocrates. DR. Williams Osler, whom has studied pneumonia throughout his career, described pneumonia as the “captain of the men of death” owing to its great effect on humanity (Pneumonia,2006).The term pneumonia refers to any infection of the lung. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the term that is used to describe pneumonia that is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia not only affects the lungs but other parts of the body such as upper respiratory tract, middle ear, or the ...view middle of the document...
(Campbell &Silberman1998). Antimicrobial resistance in an economic stand point is very expensive in fact in the year 2000 US Department of Health and Human Services spent an estimate of US$1.7 billion on antibiotic production. What is taking place is that as soon as money is spent it to the development of new antibiotics against microorganism such as S.pneumoniae develope resistance over a period of time.Therefore more money will have to be pump in antimicrobial research.The largest expense of drug industry is the money spent on development of new antibiotics and, unfortunately, there is an absolute decline in the development of new antibiotics by pharmaceutical companies some of them have even halted antibiotics researches such as Aventis, Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb and GlaxoSmithKline because of this ever growing resistance problem coupled with the fact antibiotics are of low price compared to other drugs such as neurological drug ,muscular-skeletal drug as well as short-course therapies.Currently pharmaceutical industry are the only industries that have been successfully developing antibiotics.This does not only threatens the development of new drugs against existing drug-resistant pathogens, but it also undermines the capacity to respond rapidly to the threat of emerging infectious diseases. (Bornova Izmir and Bornova Izmir,2008)..
2.2 The Problem
Pneumococcal disease is a matter of major concern in young children and the elderly in developing countries. It is estimated that pneumococcal disease is responsible for approximately 1.2 million deaths annually in children of South America. Currently in Guyana when compared to some of the other South American countries such as Peru and Colombia have a high incidence and mortality rate i.e. 2,000-3,000 cases/100,000 for children below the age of five in the year 2011.Research such as this will make the population aware of the level of antimicrobial resistance in streptococcus pneumoniae Guyana. So that certain preventative measures can be administered against the risk factors that are associated with antimicrobial resistance in streptococcus pneumoniae.
3.3Purpose of Research
The purpose of this study is mainly to gather data from some of the private and public laboratories in Guyana so as to ascertain the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance S.pneumonia. This data will lead to the drawing of meaningful conclusions about the status of antimicrobial resistance in various sections of the population.
3.4Significance of Research
i. The findings from this research will give incite to the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumonia.
ii. Findings can lead to the formation of antibiotic resistance surveillance program which will collect data on antimicrobial resistance that can be use as the bases for the formation of preventative programs or policy which will reduce if not prevent future deaths that are associated with antibiotic resistance...