The aim of the experiment was to review the role of rice flour, corn flour, wheat flour and sago flour used in the production of chicken nuggets as well as to identify the critical control points for this production of chicken nuggets.
Deep fat frying (DFF) is an intensive heat transfer process which is widely use in the food processing industry. DFF produce significant internal vaporization and pressure generation as a function of porous structure of the product. DFF can be define as the process of cooking of food by immersing food into frying oil which has been heated to the temperature of 150 - 200°C. At this temperature range, the food products develop a ...view middle of the document...
There are many other ingredients which can be added to nuggets during the production for various reasons. One of the most important ingredients in making of nuggets is salt. Salt provides two functions: adds flavour and aids in myofibrillar protein extraction, a crucial step for meat particle to bind and form nuggets. A variety of seasonings can also be added depending on product specifications. (Perez-Chabela & Totosaus, 2004)
Nugget processing can be divided into four principal steps: product forming, coating, frying and packaging. Coating and frying are important as they are responsible for weight increase besides contributing as a functional ingredient and developing texture and flavour characteristics. Coating represents a method in which water can be added and retained within the food during frying, with no weight losses. Added ingredients (proteins and carbohydrates) are also responsible for the colour and flavour development during thermal processing, caused by Maillard reactions between proteins and reducing sugars. (Mallikarjunan, Ngadi & Chinnan, 2010)
Most common problems in nugget processing occur during battering and breading operations. These problems will be reflected in the finished products but may be detected and corrected during the process itself prior to frying, when it is not too late to detect the problem. This experiment was focused on reviewing the role of corn flour, rice flour, sago flour and wheat flour used in production of chicken nuggets as well as critical control points for this production of chicken nuggets.
Figure 1: Process flow diagram of production of chicken nuggets.
Table 1: Evaluation results for fresh chicken meat, batter viscosity and cooked chicken nuggets made with different batters – rice flour, corn flour, wheat flour and sago flour.
Fresh chicken meat appearance Pink meat, no abnormal appearance and smell
Flour Wheat Rice Corn Sago
Batter viscosity Thick viscous Not viscous Batter needs to be constantly stirred to remain viscosity Not viscous
General Appearance Colour Uneven browning with white patch at some parts Golden brown Golden brown Golden brown
Oiliness Very oily Least oily Less oily Oiliest
Uniformity Uneven surface Uniform Uniform Moderate uniformity
Flavour Saltiness Salty Very salty Less salty Least salty
Meaty Flavour Moderate meaty flavour Less meaty flavour Less meaty flavour Meatiest flavour
Texture Crispness Most crispy Less crispy Less crispy More crispy
Tenderness Less dry Dry and chewy Dry and chewy Less dry
Overall Acceptability Most preferred Less preferred Least preferred More preferred
Batter viscosity is a major factor determining whether products can be coated successfully. It influences the quantity and quality of the batter pick up as well as appearance and texture. It is affected by batter temperature, ingredient composition, and solid to water ratio. Among the four types of flour used, wheat...