Program Design & Development Essay

5569 words - 23 pages

Appendix D:

Answers to Checkpoint Questions

Chapter 1
1.1
A program is a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task.
1.2
Hardware is all of the physical devices, or components, that a computer is made
of.
1.3
The central processing unit (CPU), main memory, secondary storage devices,
input devices, and output devices.
1.4
The CPU
1.5
Main memory
1.6
Secondary storage
1.7
Input device
1.8
Output device
1.9
One byte
1.10 A bit
1.11 The binary numbering system.
1.12 It is an encoding scheme that uses a set of 128 numeric codes to represent the
English letters, various punctuation marks, and other characters. These numeric
codes are used to store ...view middle of the document...

7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12



2.13
2.14

2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21

Ovals are terminal symbols. Parallelograms are either output or input symbols.
Rectangles are processing symbols.
Input, processing, and output.
A set of statements that execute in the order that they appear.
A string is a sequence of characters that is used as data. A string literal is a string
that appears in the actual code of a program.
quotation marks
A storage location in memory that is represented by a name.
Variable names must be one word. They cannot contain spaces.
In most languages, punctuation characters cannot be used in variable names. It is
usually a good idea to use only alphabetic letters and numbers in variable names.
In most languages, the first character of a variable name cannot be a number.
camelCase
The program pauses and waits for the user to type something on the keyboard,
and then press the Enter key.
When the Enter key is pressed, the data that was typed is stored in the
temperature variable.
Any hypothetical person that is using a program and providing input for it.
A message that tells (or asks) the user to enter a specific value.
(1) Display a prompt on the screen, and (2) read a value from the keyboard.
The term user-friendly is commonly used in the software business to describe
programs that are easy to use.
A statement that sets a variable to a specified value.
It is replaced.
1.

4.
2.22
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27
2.28

Perform any operations that are enclosed in parentheses.
2.
Perform any operations that use the exponent operator to raise a
number to a power.
3.
Perform any multiplications, divisions, or modulus operations as
they appear from left to right.
Perform any additions or subtractions as they appear from left to right.

It raises a number to a power.
It performs division, but instead of returning the quotient it returns the remainder.
The variable's name and data type
Yes, you must write a variable declaration before any other statement that uses the
variable.
The assignment of a value to a variable at the time the variable is declared.
A variable that has been declared, but has not been initialized or assigned a value.
Yes, they are a common cause of errors. If an uninitialized variable is used in an
operation such as a calculation, a logic error will occur.

2.29

2.30

2.31

External documentation is typically designed for the user. It consists of
documents such as a reference guide that describes the program's features, and
tutorials that teach the user how to operate the program.
Internal documentation appears as comments in a program's code. Comments are
short notes placed in different parts of a program, explaining how those parts of
the program work.
Programmers generally write block comments and line comments. Block
comments take up several lines and are used when lengthy explanations are
required. Line comments are comments...

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