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Programation Of Machines Essay

3092 words - 13 pages

Programação de Operações em Máquinas
Alunos: Leticia Peixoto Abranches
Christiano Michel Fernandes Freitas
Artigo

Proposição de heurísticas para a minimização do makespan e dos tempos de setup em um ambiente flow shop.

Catalão, março de 2013

1) Introdução:
Com a evolução da indústria o termo competitividade vem sendo abordado e desenvolvido de forma minuciosa. Não basta produzir ou simplesmente desenvolver um bom produto, é preciso ir além e saber explorar ao máximo a produtividade, criando assim um bom relacionamento com a cadeia de produção do setor.
Esta pesquisa apresenta um estudo relacionado ao sequenciamento da produção, que por sua vez é uma linha de estudos ...view middle of the document...

(2010), flow shop é um ambiente onde o fluxo de produção percorre um sentido unidirecional, ou seja, esse layout é caracterizado por todas as tarefas possuírem a mesma linha de manufatura. Em outras palavras, flow shop é o ambiente de produção em que todas as tarefas têm o mesmo fluxo de processamento nas máquinas.
Conceitualmente o tempo de setup em uma máquina está relacionado ao final de processamento de uma tarefa até o início da segunda. De acordo com Flynn (1987) o tempo de setup esta diretamente relacionada com o grau de similaridade entre tarefas ou operações diferentes, sendo estas processadas em sequência.Segundo Goldacker e Oliveira (2008) usa-se o termo set up para definir o tempo que uma máquina fica parada para realização de uma troca. Esse tempo é decorrente desde o momento em que a máquina interrompe sua produção anterior até o início produção subsequente.
De acordo com Allahverdi e Soroush( 2008), as atividades de setup incluem: obtenção de ferramentas, posicionamento do material a ser trabalhado, devolução de ferramenta, limpeza, ajuste de peças e acessórios, ajuste de ferramentas e inspeção de material em um sistema de manufatura, adequação do ambiente à execução de atividades em uma organização de serviços, entre outros. Os mesmos autores afirmam que os tempos de setup podem ser classificados em: dependentes da sequência e independentes da sequência. Se o tempo de setup é função somente da tarefa a ser processada, independentemente da tarefa anterior, é chamado de independente da sequência. Já o setup dependente da sequência depende tanto da tarefa a ser processada quanto da tarefa anterior.
O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar e propor métodos de programação e sequenciamento de tarefas, buscando a minimização da soma dos tempos de set up e a redução do makespan em um ambiente flow shop com máquinas de setups dependentes.
2) Revisão Bibliográfica:
De acordo com Morais et al, (2010), em um sistema de produção Flow Shop todas as tarefas e/ou lote de tarefas têm o mesmo fluxo padrão, ou seja, todas possuem o roteiro idêntico de produção em todos os estágios de produção. Se uma tarefa e/ou lote de tarefas não possuir uma operação em alguma das etapas, considera-se que os seus tempos neste estágio são iguais a zero.
O foco deste trabalho está nos setups dependentes da sequência de execução das tarefas. Sabe-se que setups dependentes da sequência são encontrados, geralmente, onde um só equipamento produz muitos tipos diferentes de itens, ou onde máquinas de múltiplas funcionalidades realizam uma variedade de tarefas e/ou lotes de tarefas. É de fundamental importância considerar os tempos de setup, visto que os mesmos possuem custos relevantes, como por exemplo, o custo com a máquina parada e com mão de obra especializada (FERNANDES et al., 2010).
Na literatura é possível encontrar diversas abordagens sobre o estudo de ambientes flow shop, como Fernandes et al. (2010), que estudam este ambiente com três máquinas...

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