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Project Management Pert Essay

1633 words - 7 pages

Chapter 13 Project Management

Characteristics of a “project”:
■  A

project is unique (not routine), ■  A project is composed of interrelated sub-projects/activities, ■  It is associated woth a large investment.

What is Project Management
■  To

schedule and control the progress and cost of a project.

PERT/CPM:
■ 

Input:
–  –  – 

Activities in a project; Precedence relationships among tasks; Expected performance times of tasks. The earliest finish time of the project; The critical path of the project; The required starting time and finish time of each task; Probabilities of finishing project on a certain date; ...view middle of the document...

■ 

Output:
–  –  –  –  – 

PERT/CPM is ...view middle of the document...

■  The larger the variance, the more spreadout the random values. ■  The square root of variance is called standard deviation.

Example, Foundry Inc., p.525
Activity a m b t variance

A B C D E F G H

1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1

2 3 2 4 4 2 4 2

3 4 3 6 7 9 11 3

Critical Path
•  •  • 

It is the “longest” path in the PERT network from the start to the end. It determines the duration of the project. It is the bottle-neck of the project.

Time and Timings of an Activity:
•  •  •  •  •  • 

t=estimated performance time; ES=Earliest starting time; LS=Latest starting time; EF=Earliest finish time; LF=Latest finish time; s=Slack time of a task.

Uses of Time and Timings
■  Earliest

times (ES and EF) and latest times (LS and LF) show the timings of an activity’s “in/out” of project. ■  ES and LS of an activity tell the time when the preparations for that activity must be done. ■  For calculating the critical path.

Computing Earliest Times
Step 1. Mark “start” node: ES=EF=0. Step 2. Repeatedly do this until finishing all nodes:
For a node whose immediate predecessors are all marked, mark it as below:
•  • 

ES = Latest EF of its immediate predecessors, EF = ES + t
• 

Note: EF=ES at the Finish node.

Computing Latest Times:
Step 1. Mark “Finish” node:
LF = LS = EF of “Finish” node.

Step 2. Repeatedly do this until finishing all nodes:
For a node whose immediate children’s are all marked with LF and LS, mark it as below:
•  • 

LF = Earliest LS of its immediate children, LS = LF – t
• 

Note: LS=LF at Start node.

Computing Slack Times
• 

For each activity:
–  slack

= LS – ES = LF – EF

Foundry Inc. Example
• 

Calculate ES, EF, LS, LF, and slack for each activity of the Foundry Inc. example on its PERT network, given the data about the project as in the next slide.

Example, Foundry Inc.
Activity a m b t variance

A B C D E F G H

1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1

2 3 2 4 4 2 4 2

3 4 3 6 7 9 11 3

2 3 2 4 4 3 5 2

0.111 0.111 0.111 0.444 1 1.777 1.777 0.111

A
ES= LS=

2
EF= LF=

C
ES= LS=

2
EF= LF=

F
ES= LS=

3
EF= LF=

slack=

slack=

slack=

Start
ES=EF= LS=LF=

E
ES= LS=

4
EF= LF=

H
ES= LS=

2
EF= LF=

Finish
ES=EF= LS=LF=

slack= B
ES= LS=

slack= G
ES= LS=

3
EF= LF=

D
ES= LS=

4
EF= LF=

5
EF= LF=

slack=

slack=

slack=

Network for Foundry Inc.

Example of Hospital Project:
■  Calculate

ES, EF, LF, LS and slack of each activity in this project on its PERT network, given the data about the project as in the next slide.

Example: A Hospital Project
Activity
A B C D E F G H I J K

Immediate Predecessor(s)
— — A B B A C D A E, G, H F, I, G

Performance time t (weeks)
12 9 10 10 24 10 35 40 15 4 6

F
ES=

10
EF= LF=

A
ES= LS=

12
EF= LF=

LS=

K
ES= LS=

6
EF= LF=

slack= I
ES= LS=

15
EF= LF=

slack=

slack=

slack= Start
ES=EF= LS=LF=

G 10
EF= LF= ES= LS=...

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