Written Assignment 1
1. Discuss interactions among various systems that might affect an individual's development. (Chapter 1)
The Dynamic-Systems theory and the Bioecological Systems are just two of the various systems that might affect an individual’s development. The dynamic-systems theory is a view of human development as always changing. Life is the product of ongoing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society. Flux is constant and each change affects all the others. The dynamic-systems theory stresses the ...view middle of the document...
For example, divorce, a move, change in school, or employment change are different types of transition.
1. Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson. (Chapter 2)
Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory are two very well-known theories of personality in human development. Although both, Erikson and Freud, believed that the human personality develops in a series of stages, Erikson’s theory differed from Freud’s theory in a number of ways.
Erikson's psychosocial theory basically asserts that people experience eight 'psychosocial crisis stages' which significantly affect each person's development and personality. Erikson organized life into eight stages in which each healthy developing person should pass through, starting with birth (infancy) and ending with death (old age or late adulthood). Each stage states a psychosocial crisis of two opposing emotional forces and the significant person/ people the crisis involves. Like building blocks, each and every stage builds onto the successful completion of previous stage/ stages. Erikson called these successful outcomes or fundamental gains as ‘Basic Strengths’. If each stage is not completed successfully, they may be expected to reappear (as problems) in the future.
The First Stage, Infancy (birth to 18 months), is the center of an infant’s basic needs that is being met by the parents. For example, the infant solely relies on the mother for food and comfort. Through interaction with the parents, the child will get an understanding of society and the world. If the parents bring the child up with warm, regular, and dependable affection, then the infant will feel comfortable enough to trust. For example, if the parents or caregiver are a consistent source of food, comfort, and affection, an infant learns trust and that others are dependable and reliable. If the child does not feel secure and their basic needs are not satisfied, then the child may always have a sense of mistrust. For example, if the parents or caregiver is neglectful or abusive, the infant learns to mistrust and later may feel that the world is an undependable, unpredictable, and even a dangerous place. The Psychosocial crisis is Trust vs. Mistrust, and the successful outcome or fundamental gain (or Basic Strength) is Hope.
The Second Stage, Early childhood (toddlers 18 months to 3 years), is focused on a child developing a greater sense of personal control. As the child gains control over motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. The parents still need to provide a strong base of security so the child can assert their will by venturing out. To help foster autonomy in the child, they need their parents’ patience and encouragement. For example, caution and supervision must be taken while the child explores the world around them. This is when children develop their first interests. Highly restrictive parents, however, are...