Psychology Essay

1401 words - 6 pages

Phobias and addictions the difinitons and examples.















Phobias and Addictions

Sonia Herrera
IRN: 9035576165
January 7, 2012
Instructor Shane Williamson











Phobias and ...view middle of the document...

To people it takes an amount of learning between the environment and the consequence. There are times that learning happens with out attending aware. That is with that classical and operant conditioning steps in the picture.
Phobias are developing trough classical conditioning. A phobia is a constant irrational fear of an object, situation, or activity that the person believes impelled to avoid (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). Phobia is also an irrational fear of specific object or situation. The development of phobias through classical conditioning takes place when one stimulus is paired with another that changes or obscures the original reflexive response to the original stimulus (Dingfelder, 2005). Tremor, faintness, fatigue, perspiration, palpitations, panic, and nausea are all symptoms of a phobia. A phobia is developing trough classical conditioning when a stimulus is presented and associates to something fearful. When an individual suffers from a phobia they tend to increase the fear and avoid the stimulus. Then classical conditioning comes in and can increase the phobia. Little Albert is a famous example of classical conditioning by Watson and Rayner. Watson and Rayner presented little Albert with a dog, a rabbit, a white rat, a Santa clause mask, and a fur coat the child showed no fear when shown all those objects. A few day later Watson and Reynar presented little Albert with a loud noise, which is the UCS by hitting the steel bar right behind his head. Little Albert response was to physically moving such as falling forward, jumping, and whimpering. After two months, Watson and Reynar decided the white rat to be the S of the experiment. Each time Albert will try to touch the white rat, they will stroke the steel bar the same noise he made movement too. After a few tries with the rat and noise Albert than started to develop fear over the white rat. One day Watson and Reynar presented Albert with all the same object it should be presented him the first day with to see if he had fear. They present him with a white rabbit, dog, a fur coat, and a Santa Claus mask. When they present the objects to Albert he response very negatively. They present him in a room where there had no effect of Albert’s reaction of fear to the different stimuli. Albert develops fear over anything white such as animals or objects.
Operant conditioning is defined as a way to learn to operate on the environment to develop consequences. Addiction is a persistent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance. Addictions are another emotion that made of your own mind also. Addiction is known for being a progressive syndrome, which means that it can escalate itself to severity over time unless it’s treated. Operant conditioning is a consequence that forms a behavior. There is three components to operate conditioning. First is the aspect of reinforcement. For example there is a girl who likes to shop, for she is always up...

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