Psychology 9 Essay

1252 words - 6 pages

#1 As defined from Chapter 2 of Weiten’s book, sample bias exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was draw. When a sample is not representative, generalizing about the population may be inaccurate. In class, we studied three psychological experiments, Milgram’s Obedience research, Zimbardo’s Prison study and the John/Joan case study. Samples used in these studies were biased. In Milgram’s Obedience to Authority research, the study used a size of sample of male participants instead of both male and female and volunteer samples of readers of local newspapers. This means the study is subject to sample bias and therefore the findings may lack ...view middle of the document...

Also, researchers must be very careful about the trauma deception may cause and shouldn’t put participants in danger. In obedience to authority research, participants were deceived as to the nature of the study for which they had volunteered, and by making them believe they were administering real electric shocks to a real participant. Milgram could not have found results that truly reflected the way people behave in real situations if he had not deceived his participants. Milgram stated at the start that the money paid to the participants was theirs regardless of whether they continued with the experiment. However, during the experiment the prods used suggested that withdrawal was not possible. This is ethically incorrect. This bought up a question whether the experiment would have been valid if the experimenter kept reminding the participant about his right to withdraw. In the Stanford Prison experiment, participants were deceived and were not told all that would take place. Participants- both the guards and especially the prisoners - were put under a great stress. Participants were psychologically and physically harmed. Prisoners had a chain around their ankle. In Zimbardos' movie, at the end prisoner 416 had said that it was a prison and that just because it was a prison run by psychologists versus the government made no difference. In this situation participants were not really given an opportunity to accept all the risks. They had no idea what they were getting themselves into. In John/Joan case study, Dr. Money had deceived David since the first day of the experiment. David’s brother was also a part of this experiment when Dr. Money asked him and David to take their clothes off to compare their differences in order to convince David that he was a girl. Dr. Money also deceived the public by writing in his theory that his experiment was successful but in fact it was a lie. All of these actions have violated the APA guidelines. APA guideline #6 stated that psychologist need permission from committee to do research and cannot change the data. In John/Joan’s case, Dr. Money clearly didn’t tell David the purpose of the sex reassignment and altered results in his paper. He also violated the rule without permissions doing surgery experiment on David. As result, David suffered severe depression and committed suicide.
#3 The main belief of Theme 3: “Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context” from the book is that dense interconnections exist between what happens in psychology and what happens in society at large. Trends, issues, and values in society influence psychology’s evolution. Similarly, progress in psychology affects trends, issues, and values in the society. In the beginning of Stanford...

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