Psychology Flashcards Essay

4122 words - 17 pages

1) Behavioral Perspective | Emerged from the pioneering work of Ivan, Pavlov,John B. Wastong, and B.F. Skinner. Emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured. |
2) Humanistic Perspective | Emerged from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Emphasizes the importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior. |
3)Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective | Emerged from the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. Emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality |
4)Cognitive Perspective | Influenced by the computer revolution, the cognitive perspective compares the mind to a computer that encodes, ...view middle of the document...

13) Double-Blind Study | A procedure in which neither the researcher nor the participant knows which group received the experimental treatment. Designed to reduce experimenter bias. |
14) Case Study | An in-depth examination of a single research participant. |
15) Correlation Research | The researcher observes or measures two or more naturally occurring variables to find the relationship between them. In correlation research,the researcher does not directly manipulate the variables. |
16) Correlation Coefficient | A numerical value from +1.00 to -1.00 that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. A positive correlation indicates that the two variables more or vary in the same direction. A negative correlation indicates that the two variables more or vary in opposite directions. A zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between the two variables. |
17)Mean | A measure of central tendency that provides the average score. Any change in the highest score in distribution must result in a change in the mean. |
18) Median | A measure of central tendency that divides a frequency distribution exactly in half. |
19) Mode | A measure of central tendency that identifies the most frequently occurring score in a distribution. |
20) Standard Deviation | A measure of variability that indicates the average differences between the scores and their mean. |
21) Normal Distribution | A bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic throughout a population. In a normal distribution, half the scores fall at or above the mean and half the scores fall at or below the mean. |
22) Positively Skewed Distribution | Contains a preponderance of scores on the high end of the scale. The mean will be higher than the median in a positively skewed distribution |
23)Negatively Skewed Distribution . | Contains a preponderance of scores on the low end of the scale.The mean will lower than the median in negatively skewed distribution . |
24) P-Value | the probability of concluding that difference exist when in fact the difference is a difference not likely due to change .By the consensus ,a statistically significant difference is one that would show up only 5 percent of the time or less .The smaller p-value the more significant the result . |
25) NEURON | A highly specialized nerve call responsible for receiving and transportation in electrical and chemical forms.Neuron are the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system |
26) MYELIN SHEATH | A white ,fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons ,which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon . |
27) ACTION POTENTIAL | A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of neuron . |
28) ALL-OR-NOTHING LOW | The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action...

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