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Psychology Notes Unit 3 Essay

4932 words - 20 pages

Unit 3 – Psychology
Chapter 1 – Research Methodologies
Variables:
Independent: the variable that is systematically manipulated.
Dependent: the variable which measures the effects of the IV.
Extraneous: a variable that may or may not have an effect on the DV.
Confounding: a variable that had an undesired effect on the DV
Research Designs:
Matched Participants Design: pairing based on similar characteristics, minimising extraneous
variables
Repeated Measures Design: one group that is exposed to both the experimental group and
the control group. Eliminating extraneous variables
Independent Groups Design: randomly allocating the members of the sample to either the
experimental ...view middle of the document...

Non-Standardised: each participant will partake in a similar but different experiment.
Generalising: when findings are applied to the general population. Must meet the following
criteria:
-

Statistically significant results, sample is representative of the population, method of
sampling is appropriate, wherever possible the extraneous and confounding
variables have been controlled.

Conclusions: a decision or judgement about the research results that address the hypothesis
and are statistically significant.
Statistical Significance:
P-values:
Less than 0.05 (p0.05)
- Results are statistically significant
- Due to independent variable
- Hypothesis is accepted and
conclusions are drawn

Random Allocation: a technique that ensures the each participant has an equal chance of
being selected into either the control or experimental group.
Experimental Group: the group exposed to the IV which is the variable being manipulated.
Control Group: the variable under investigation in the experimental group is absent from the
control group.
Ethical Principles
Beneficence: no harm to the participant, maximise benefit to society.
Respect for persons: no harm to the participant, maximise benefit to society.
Participant rights: all participants rights must be upheld.
Voluntary participation: participant must willingly give consent to partake in the experiment.
Informed consent: participant or guardian must be informed of what the experiment entails.
Confidentiality: results and the identity of the participant remain private.
Withdrawal rights: all participants have the right to leave the experiment at any time.
Psychological harm: there must be no long term mental harm to the participant as a result of
the experiment.

Debriefing: participants must be made aware of the purpose of the experiment and
counselling needs to be provided if needed.
Deception: the participant may be unaware of a particular detail of the experiment but has to
be told at the end.

Chapter 2 - States of Consciousness
Normal-waking consciousness (NWC): when we are awake and aware of our internal and
external environments and stimuli.
Altered-State of Consciousness: distinctly different in experience from NWC.
Characteristic

Normal Waking
Consciousness

Altered State of
Consciousness

Content Limitations

More constrained/controlled,
can selectively process
different parts of what is in
consciousness

Perceptual Distortions

Usual level of awareness of
sensory stimuli; including
pain, usually accurate
perceptual processing of
events
Effective control of memory
processes (recall is more
organised and logical)

Less constrained/controlled:
reduced ability to process
information, but may be
fewer limitations on content
of which we become aware
of
Heightened or lowered
sensory thresholds, including
pain and hallucinations

Cognitive Distortions

Emotional Awareness

Greater awareness of
emotions and control of
...

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