Psychology: Lesson 42- Forgetting
1. Forgetting: Can be defined as the inability to retrieve information from memory, depending on the circumstances, forgetting can be a slight irritation, some memories are particularly resistant forgetting, while others seems irretrievable no matter how hard we try. Chronic forgetfulness or forgetting amounts of information, however, can be symptoms of disease, such as Alzheimer or amnesia.
2. Proactive Interference: According to interference theory, memories stored in similar categorizes tend to interfere with each other, sometimes then retrieval failure may be due to the disruptive effects of previous memories on the recall of new ...view middle of the document...
People are generally not aware that of these reconstructive process when they remember something.
8. Misfortune effect: As described more in detail, many studies shown that when people are exposed to subtle misinformation about what they are trying to remember, they often misremember the information by incorporating the misleading material into the event.
9. Eyewitness Testimony: Research on memory has important implications for examining eyewitness testimony and the prevention of innaccuries. For example, research has found that if people are forewarned that an interrogation can create a memory bias, they are less likely to be influenced by leading questions. People in the legal field should also keep in mind that confidence in memory is not an indication of a “real” or accurate memory, because reconstructed memories are stored like real memories, they often feel real.
10. Applying Memory: What we have learned thus far about memory can suggest a number of effective study techniques, first of all, it is important to actually make an effort to remember, that also means that you will remember materials that we are interested in better than materials you do not care about it. It may be helpful to try and reframe the information that you are trying to learn in interesting and fun ways.
Chapter 10- Lesson 44: Thinking, judgment, and Decision Making:
11. Thinking: Is a process by which new material representations are formed, and involves judging, abstracting, reasoning, imagining, and problem solving, there is a debate within psychology about the nature of thought. For example, a chess player might study the chessboard for a few minutes before actually making her move.
12. Concept: Is a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people, concepts help us move through the world quickly and easily, and without expending a lot of thought. For example, you have a mental concept of chair. You know that a chair tends to have 4 legs, a seat, a back and sometimes arms.
13. Concept Formation: Concept are formed in many ways, one common method is through rule learning. A conceptual rule is a statement of how things must be related in order for a new object to be an example of a particular concept. Consider the chair example above, the rule that you have learned is “To be a chair, there must be a seat, some numbers of legs, a back, and sometimes arms.
14. Logic: is applying science to thinking, we saw some brief examples of logic reasoning in module 1- The history of psychology, if you recall, the early philosophers applied logical analysis to help them to understand human nature. Logical analysis is one example of thinking patterns that people use them solve problems.
15. Syllogistic Reasoning: Is one of the most common forms of logical analysis, and was introduced by Aristotle, a syllogism begins with a major premise that is assumed to be true, and a minor premise that is also assumed to be true. A...