Children in middle childhood are growing psychosocially at a quick rate. During middle childhood they become industrious, develop a self-concept, and learn how to be friends, amongst other things.
In Erickson’s Stages of Development a child in middle childhood, (or children from age six to age eleven), move through the industry versus inferiority stage. This stage is marked by the child working to gain new skills and in general just being productive (Click P. M., Parker J., 2002, p. 89). A child who is successful in their attempts will gain confidence in themselves and move on into adolescence firmly on the industrious side. A child who is not successful in acquiring the skills they try will ...view middle of the document...
They will become more materialistic, and desperate for the positive attention of their peers as they continue to grow (Berger K. S., 2010, p. 286).
During middle childhood a person’s peers become important, and not just for social comparison. Friendships become much more intense during middle childhood, demanding things like loyalty and secrecy. Children learn how to be good friends during this time period. If they have no friends by the end of this developmental period then they are more likely to be depressed in adolescence (Berger K. S., 2010, p 305).
Child culture surrounds the children, and grows separately from adult culture. It includes all the rules, superstitions, and stories that children learn from slightly older children. Examples of child culture are; hand clapping games, jump rope rhymes, and stories about Bloody Mary. Child culture also “encourages independence from adults” (Berger K. S., 2010, p. 304), usually through name-calling the ones who don’t fall into line. The child will often seek out friends who are rebellious towards adults, including their parents.
The way a family raises their child will affect how a child will grow. The family structure determines who is in their immediate vicinity, and the family function determines how they care for each other. Family structures can vary widely, from the nuclear family to the single-parent home to the adoptive family. During middle childhood a parent needs to provide five essential things; their physical necessities, learning opportunities, self-respect, the chance to foster peer relationships, and “harmony and stability”. Stability is especially important in middle childhood. Instability, depending on the resilience of the child, can cause a lot of harm to the growth of the child.
A study done at the University of Maryland supported the important role that families and peer groups provide for the well-being of a child both cognitively and psychosocially. Children placed in institutional care, (and as a result were psychosocially deprived), were given IQ tests before and after intervention, (where they were adopted into families). The IQ tests they took before the intervention showed low scores, while after they were placed in homes they had significant gains in their IQ (Fox N. H., 2011).
Resilience is defined as the child’s ability to cope with ongoing stress. It is also defined as dynamic, a child who is resilient at age seven might not be resilient at age ten. After traumatic events it is suggested that resilient children will have a “relatively prompt recovery time” where after the immediate aftermath they can go back to their “normal patterns of feeling and behaving” (Williams R., 2007). During the immediate aftermath a resilient child will exhibit signs of trauma and stress before they recover.
Resilience can be affected by any number of factors including the child’s ability to escape the stressor, their social support and/or religion, and how they view events. If they...