This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Radioimmunotherapy As A Treatment For Lymphoma

1372 words - 6 pages

Radioimmunotherapy
A new innovative cancer treatment called Radioimmunotherapy or RIT joins conventional radiation therapy with immunotherapy. RIT uses monoclonal antibodies to target specific cancer cells and minimize damage to surrounding cells and tissue. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are laboratory made immune proteins engineered to attach to antigens of specific cells. These antibodies mimic antibodies naturally produced as part of the immune system. Originally MAbs were made completely from mice cells and when these were introduced into the human body, the immune system would react against them. This decreased the success rate of the treatment and many times the immune system ...view middle of the document...

Even after patients are released they must still follow strict guidelines for approximately 5 days to minimize contamination of others. These guidelines are avoiding airplanes and buses, limit interaction with others, stay six feet or more away from children and pregnant women, a spouse must sleep in a separate bed and patients use a separate private bathroom.
Yttrium 90 decays with a half-life of 2.6 days or 64 hours and emits intense beta radiation. This radioisotope has 51 neutrons in the nucleus. There is only one stable form of Y90 and it is the only naturally occurring form. The stable form of Y90 is Y89 which has 49 neutrons. On decaying Y90 converts to Zr90. Since Y90 does not have a gamma emission it cannot be imaged directly, but this has a positive aspect as the patient will not have restrictions on human contact or have to remain in containment.
RIT has showed positive effects in the treatment of blood cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma and although the RIT is mainly used as a cancer treatment, continued studies have shown promising result in treatment of many other diseases such as fungal, resistant bacteria, and viral infections. Scientists have also conducted studies of the use of RIT as a treatment in HIV infected cells.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is ranked fifth in cancer mortality in the United States. Lymphocytes or white blood cells are extremely sensitive to radiation. In traditional radiation and chemotherapy these cells and other rapidly dividing cells were destroyed. In RIT MAbs are engineered to target the antigen CD20 that expressed on surface of malignant B-cell lymphomas. MAbs can deliver radiation to B-lymphocytes expressing CD20, the target antigens as well as neighboring tumor cells reducing the risk of damage to non-cancer cells. Clinical trials have shown that RIT can achieve a high response rate in patients with relapse or refractory follicular lymphoma.
Researchers are also testing the use of RIT against HIV. By targeting the lymphocytes that contain the viruses rather than the viruses themselves, scientist have been able to effectively eliminate HIV infected cells in laboratory tests and animal studies. Current treatment for HIV is a combination of retroviral drugs (HAART) that are designed to keep the virus from replicating. This treatment can appear successful because the virus can disappear from the blood for a while. Unfortunately the virus can hide in immune cells because they are bits of RNA or DNA wrapped in a thin protein coat. This also allows the cells to resist radiation therapy and repair damage. In the RIT studies the isotope Bismuth 213 was bound by a ligand molecule to the antibody of glycoprotein 41 (gp41). Gp41 is a glycoprotein secreted by HIV infected cells that is usually not shed into the blood stream. By targeting the antibody instead of the virus, RIT is able to bypass the cells defense system and invade the structure and kill the virus. Researchers...

Other Essays Like Radioimmunotherapy As A Treatment For Lymphoma

Compare Sources a and B as Evidence for Henry Vii Claim to the Throne of England

1121 words - 5 pages Compare sources A and B as evidence for Henry VII’s claim to the throne of England [30] On comparing sources A and B as evidence for Henry VII’s claim to the throne in 1485, it can be said both have relevant use as both give an account of events at the time of Henry VII’s coronation. However it is questionable how reliable each of the two sources are because of the position of the authors in relation to King Henry VII and their willingness to

Com130-Preparations for Landing a Job as Network and Computer System Administrator

2552 words - 11 pages Preparations for Landing a Job as Network and Computer System Administrator STUDENT NAME COM 130 INSTRUCTOR NAME Abstract The motivating factor for my research into becoming a system administrator was first of all, to see how it would apply to myself in my current situation. Would it be realistic for me at my age to begin preparations to attempt to enter the field which I had coveted for many years? To that end, I ran a survey amongst my

English Language As A Medium Of Instruction For Science And Mathematics In Malaysia

1734 words - 7 pages Nowadays English was an international language, it was widely used; it was not just for education purpose, but was gradually spread in other sectors, especially in the economic sector. On 6th May 2002, the then Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir announced that government willing to reintroduce English as a medium of instruction. And on 11th May 2002, the then Education Minister Musa Mohamad established a bilingual system that set up with English

“Using the Case Study Provided Develop a Treatment Plan for This Client. Justify Your Assessment and Proposed Actions in Terms of the Relationship Models and Concepts Introduced in the Module.”

3108 words - 13 pages everyday. So balance is a good place to start. The Equity theory came about as a result of previous studies in disruptive justice and concerns that for a relationship to be successful then there must be some balance, which was summarised by Walster, Walster and Berschild (1978) in their four principle approach. Generally people will try to get the most out of a relationship while trying to avoid any unpleasant experiences. Although we all like

GCSE Coursework:Frankenstein:How Does Mary Shelley Manipulate Your Responce To The Characters Of Frankenstein And His Monster As The Story Develops?:For This I Got A Grade A/A*

1768 words - 8 pages FrankensteinHow does Mary Shelley manipulate you response to the characters of Frankenstein and his monster as the story develops?The opening paragraph sets the scene for the story. It does this from the start when it begins with. 'a dreary night in November.' This creates a sense of winter with connotations of coldness, darkness and a time of death. It's also a classic setting for a horror novel. The word 'dreary' I think is an effective

A basic outline of the Element Iron. Useful for replacing a lab on Iron (if so instucted), or as a brief history of Iron

550 words - 3 pages supported by The Edgar Thomson Works.Carnegie saw a potential in steel for railways, the iron in rail tracks had been wearing away too quickly and causing terrible episodes. Carnegie soon rid of his job to manufacture this idea to make safer rails from the United States to England. As profits increased Carnegie hired railroad engineers for mass production. A steel plant soon came about with hot furnaces, called blast furnaces and rolling mills in machine

How Does Priestley Present Mr Birling Priestley Presents the Character of Mr Birling as a Symbol of the Capitalist Ruling Class and the Need for Socialist Ideals

3086 words - 13 pages How Does Priestley Present Mr Birling Priestley presents the character of Mr Birling as a symbol of the capitalist ruling class and the need for socialist ideals. Priestley begins by presenting Mr Birling as a successful, albeit 'hard-headed businessman'. It is clear from the stage directions which describe 'The dining room... of a fairly large suburban house, belonging to a prosperous manufacturer' that Birling is rich and materialistically

An Evaluation On The Socio Economic Characteristics Of Solar Lighting Users To Determine The Market Segment For Solar Products As A Basis For Expansion: The Case Of Card Bdsfi Experience, Philippines

1897 words - 8 pages AN EVALUATION ON THE SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR LIGHTING USERS TO DETERMINE THE MARKET SEGMENT FOR SOLAR PRODUCTS AS A BASIS FOR EXPANSION A PAPER ON DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Submitted to; Dean Agnes Rola In fulfillment of the requirements for PAF 203 2nd sem 2011-2012 University of the Philippines College of Public Affairs CLARISSA M. DIMACULANGAN March, 2012 I. Introduction In the Philippines, until today, some remote

Make a Case to the Ceo for or Against Investment in This New Operating System (as Opposed to Sticking with Your Current Operating System Platform) Clearly Argue Why You Would Recommend Installing This...

969 words - 4 pages Abstract Make a case to the CEO for or against investment in this new operating system (as opposed to sticking with your current operating system platform) clearly argue why you would recommend installing this new system or not? There are many questions that must be answered before you purchase a new operating system (OS). Foremost is the cost of the upgrade to the Vista OS. Will it make the company work more efficient, or improve

I Am a Traveler by Kang Shinho as a Teacher, I Think I’m a Traveler. When Travelers Fill Their Bags with Things Needed for Travel, I Fill My Heart, Soul and Brain with Continuous Studying so That My...

1106 words - 5 pages I Am a Traveler By Kang Shinho As a teacher, I think I’m a traveler. When travelers fill their bags with things needed for travel, I fill my heart, soul and brain with continuous studying so that my students will be able to use it when they’re in need. In addition, when travelers want to have a cozy and comfortable place to take a rest after a long walk, I, as another traveler, feel comfortable when I teach, play and be with my lovely

Use Sources 1, 2 and 3 and Your Own Knowledge. Do You Agree with the View That the 1950s Can Be Seen as a Period of Great Prosperity for the People of Britain? Explain Your Answers Using Sources 1, 2...

1206 words - 5 pages In my opinion, the 1950s cannot be seen as a period of prosperity for the people of Britain for a number of reasons which I will explain further on. I believe that source 1 mainly agrees with the above statement, however, there are some areas in the source which can display ways in which the source doesn’t fully agree with the above statements. Source 2 also, somewhat agrees with the above question, however, there are a greater number of aspects

Related Papers

Cialis – A Treatment For Erectile Dysfunction

730 words - 3 pages , vacuum therapy, and penile implant surgery.In what stage of the "product life cycle" is this product?Cialis is somewhere between growth and maturity in its life cycle. When Cialis was first introduced in 2005 and became available as an option for people who suffer from ED, the product advertising was extremely aggressive. Today the advertising is a reminder of the benefits of this ED treatment. Because the promotion has subsided, this indicates

Environmental Management Accounting As A Strategy For

3161 words - 13 pages UNIVERSITY OF JOS FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING MASTERS IN ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE (M.Sc) ACC 512 – ADVANCED MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING “ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AS A STRATEGY FOR CORPORATE SUVIVIAL” PRESENTED TO THE COURSE LECTURER – PASTOR j a OLOREDE BY; OLUMIDE ABISOYE OLOWOKURE PGSS/UJ/00083/10 Introduction Environmental accounting is a

For Such A Time As This

2783 words - 12 pages For Such A Time As This “FOR SUCH A TIME AS THIS” Orphaned as a child, a woman of Jewish decent becomes the most powerful woman in Persia. During a decree which would cause the annihilation of herself and her people, she stands up to the most powerful man in Persia, which could instantly cause the loss of her life and hopelessness for her people. Can this woman save herself, her people, or lose her life in a time where a women’s authority

What Can We Do As A Country And As Citizens To Reduce Poverty And Ensures Basic Amenities For Every Indian?

1218 words - 5 pages selection a candidate can be posted at any of the Institute’s office located in Guwahati, Indore, Bengaluru, Lucknow or New Delhi. 2. In case of regular posts, the upper age limit is relaxable for SC/ST/OBC/physically handicapped and others as per the rules applicable in Govt. of India for Central Govt. employees. Maximum age limit will be reckoned on last date for receipt of application. 3. The candidates serving in Govt. /autonomous