Radioisotopes Essay

1001 words - 5 pages

Naturally occurring radioactive substances have high nucleon number. It is possible to make artificial radioactive substances by bombarding lighter nuclides with  - particles, protons or neutrons. The radioactive substances produced in this manner are known as radioisotopes.
A nuclide is any species of atom of which each atom has an identical proton number and also an identical nucleon number. Different nuclides, which have the same proton number (but different nucleon numbers) are called isotopes (isotopic nuclides). The first radioisotope was an unstable isotope of phosphorus. It was produced in 1934 by bombarding aluminium with  - particles, i.e.,

Phosphorus - 30 ...view middle of the document...

We return to sources of radioactivity in this chapter in order to learn about methods which are used to make radioisotopes.
The type of radioisotope of value to nuclear medicine imaging should have characteristics which keep the radiation dose to the patient as low as possible. For this reason they generally have a short half life and emit only gamma-rays - that is no alpha-particle or beta-particle emissions. From an energy point of view the gamma-ray energy should not be so low that the radiation gets completely absorbed before emerging from the patient's body and not too high that it is difficult to detect. For this reason most of the radioisotopes used emit gamma-rays of medium energy, that is between about 100 and 200 keV. Finally since the radioisotope needs to be incorporated into some form of radiopharmaceutical it should also be capable of being produced in a form which is amenable to chemical, pharmaceutical and sterile processing.
The production methods we will consider are nuclear fission, nuclear bombardment and the radioisotope generator.
It was just over a century ago that a little known French scientist named Henri Becquerel came across something new and immensely startling. At the time, while working with phosphorescent materials (i.e. materials that glow in the dark after being subjected to light), he discovered naturally occurring rays that he couldn’t account for. In time, these rays were discovered to be present in several naturally occurring elements, and were dubbed radioactivity. Those metals that exhibited them also came to be known as Radioactive Isotopes.
Radioisotopes, (also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides), are atoms with a different number of neutrons than a usual atom. Due to this imbalance, these isotopes have an unstable nucleus that decays, and in the process emitting alpha, beta and gamma rays until the isotope reaches stability. Once it’s stable, the isotope has transformed into another element entirely. Every chemical element has one or more radioisotopes, with over 1,000 isotopes accounted for in total. Approximately 50 of...

Other Essays Like Radioisotopes

Shadow of Chernobyl Essay

1115 words - 5 pages the form of both particle and gaseous radioisotopes, and is the most significant unintentional release of radiation into the environment to date. The country of Belarus (to the north of Ukraine) was hit with an estimated 60% of the radiation fallout. All of the noble gases, including krypton and xenon, contained within the reactor were released immediately into the atmosphere by the first steam explosion. In the aftermath of the accident

Physics - Radiotherapy: Beneficial Or Dangerous?

1332 words - 6 pages be directed at a tumor through a tube or needle, making them safer than X-rays, since the energy of the gamma rays is a lot lower. In recent years radiologists involved in radiotherapy have expanded their activities to include the use of radioisotopes and also the combination of radiotherapy with a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs or with hormones in the treatment of cancer. This specialty is now termed, ‘radiation oncology’.The way

The Future Looks Bright For Ja

2453 words - 10 pages estimated that the hospitalized patients received up to 20,000 mSv (milliSieverts)(3). As much as 100 mSv of radiation was released as far as 100 m away from the reprocessing power plant. High gamma readings around the fuel reprocessing plant fell to zero 20 hours after the original release. Strontium, iodine, cesium, sodium, xenon and krypton are radioisotopes that were released up to 3 km away from the plant. There are seven intensity levels given to

Nuclear Waste Management

2365 words - 10 pages radioactive bulk (after treatment) is often then discharged. For instance, it is possible to use a ferric hydroxide floc to remove radioactive metals from aqueous mixtures. After the radioisotopes are absorbed onto the ferric hydroxide, the resulting sludge can be placed in a metal drum before being mixed with cement to form a solid waste form. In order to get better long-term performance (mechanical stability) from such forms, they may be

The Separation Of Capital Ownership And Control

1577 words - 7 pages The argument of whether the separation of capital ownership and control is an efficient form of organization has constantly been a controversial issue. The criticism whether the controllers’ act is in the best interest of the owners’ wills never end as long as hired managers operate management. As the number of public companies has been increasing over the course of this century, meanwhile the American style of contact based corporation has

The Versatility And Flexibility Of OLED's

1014 words - 5 pages In April 1, 2002, organic light emitting diodes gain rise in the scientific community with their published, more practical form at Ames Laboratory. “Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, have developed and demonstrated a novel, fluorescence-based chemical sensor that is more compact, versatile and less expensive than existing technology of its

Comparing The Moral Virtues Of Antony And Julian The Apostate

1103 words - 5 pages Roman emperor Julian the Apostate and Christian leader Antony both exhibited many qualities of character during their existence. Both of them led very distinctive lives although shared several ethical values. Book 25 of “The Later Roman Empire” and the book “Early Christian Lives” show concrete evidence of this. In the following essay, I will argue how both leaders’ lives were devoted to their religious beliefs and their mutual cardinal virtues

Living In A Cashless Society

1637 words - 7 pages Money in a traditional sense no longer exists. Money is becoming much of a concept than a physical material, and most ordinary bitter have not see the reality of the switch. People today are using credit and debit cards on a regular basis and in everyday situations such as meal purchased at fast food, highway tolls, clothing, groceries, gas stations, etc. all of these means of systems could be regarded as a cashless society or world. The question

The French And Indian War: The "Real" First World War

1955 words - 8 pages The Seven Years War, or more commonly referred to as “The French and Indian War”, has been called the true First World War. In this book The French and Indian War: Deciding the Fate of North America, the author and historian Walter R. Borneman paints a detailed and elaborate picture that justifies the claim of it being the first true war of global proportions. If ever there truly was a climax to the never ending feud of the European powers

Is The Use Of Animals In Medical Research A Necessary Measure?

1513 words - 7 pages Throughout history, animals have been used in experiments to test product safety and obtain medical knowledge that benefits both humans and animals alike. Every year there are numerous medical breakthroughs, such as medications and surgical instruments, which are tested on animals to insure their safety before they are deemed acceptable for human use. Even though the results of the experiments saved millions of human lives, they are also

Education And The Evolving Job Market

2363 words - 10 pages The lives of students today are changing. They are preparing for lives and jobs that have never before existed. If teachers hope to have a significant and worthwhile impact on these quickly changing lives, they must change the way they think, prepare, and instruct our future generations. Children cannot afford to have teachers who remain stagnant in their methods and ideals. Students crave instructors that are willing to allow them to tap

Related Papers

Radioactive Isotopes Essay

646 words - 3 pages rays in opposite directions (Radioisotopes in Medicine, 2013). These gamma rays are then detected by the use of a PET camera. Some radioactive isotopes; such as Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, Fluorine-18, and Copper-64, are used in PET scans as positron emitters. PET’s are used mostly in the field of oncology (the study of tumors and cancers) and most commonly use the isotope Fluorine-18 as the tracer. Fluorine-18 is most often used because of

Radioimmunotherapy As A Treatment For Lymphoma

1372 words - 6 pages . Continued studies have now led to humanized antibodies. Humanized antibodies consist of fragments of human antibodies instead of whole ones. Researchers also found that by using smaller fragments that there was a greater chance for the antibodies to reach the targeted cells. Once the engineered MAbs have been made, radioisotopes are attached through a process called labeling. Iodine 131 (I131) and Yttrium 90 (Y90) are the most common

A Biography On Enrico Fermi Essay

1784 words - 8 pages radioactive elements were obtained by bombarding the naturally occurring nuclei with neutrons and the subsequent beta decay of these nuclei. Thus he produced more than forty different artificial radioisotopes. This resulted in the production of elements that lay beyond what was considered the Periodic Table at that time. These radioisotopes have found to have many uses. They have been used in medicine, material testing and applications, heart implants

Role Of Chemistry Essay

770 words - 4 pages particular the use of X-rays for diagnosis, and radioisotopes for cancer treatment. The later discoveries in fission, which would prove to be the next step in harnessing the power of the atom for energy production, were later accomplished by her admirer, another woman, Lise Meitner. The attack against nuclear energy, and the fear of nuclear science by the population today, is an attack against all scientific progress. The irony is almost too funny