Discuss the general procedural considerations for radiographic examinations including:
a) patient preparation for examination
Many radiologic exams require specific patient preparation prior to the exam in order to ensure that the study is performed in the safest and most accurate manner possible. For example:
❖ MRI- With contrast: No solid foods 4 hours before your study. Clear fluids are allowed up to 2 hours before study. Without contrast: No foods or fluids up to 2 hours before study. Any use of medical or electronic devices should be informed before study.
❖ CT scan- Fluids and food may be restricted for several hours prior to the examination
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Breast masses will appear light (whiter) because they are denser than other features in the breast. During mammography,
the patient's breasts are placed on a firm flat panel and a gentle, but firm pressure is applied to the breast with another panel, resulting in compression of the breast between the two panels. Patient must hold still to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. Usually two x-rays are obtained of each breast.
b) CT scan
CT scan is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. It is one of the best and fastest tools for studying the chest, abdomen and pelvis because it provides detailed, cross-sectional views of all types of tissue. It uses x-ray to produce cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues from different angles. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. During CT scan, patient is placed on a movable table, and the table is slipped into the center of a large donut-shaped machine which takes the x-ray images around the body. The CT scan "slice" the body part into very detailed multidimensional view. It is important during the CT scan procedure that the patient minimize any body movement to reduce the possibility of a blurred image.
c) Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine procedure is among the safest diagnostic imaging exam available. It is performed to assess the function of nearly every organ. Unlike other imaging techniques, rather than showing anatomy and structure, nuclear medicine imaging exams focus on the molecular, metabolic, physiologic and pathologic conditions in the body to determines the severity of or treat a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. For most nuclear medicine examinations, the patient is lay on a scanning table underneath a scintillation or gamma camera. Then a radiopharmaceutical is administered intravenously, orally or through inhalation. The camera then detects and records the radioactive emissions from the patient's body. Images are taken an hour, two hours, or even several days after administration of the radiopharmaceutical.
Ultrasound is a procedure that uses high frequency sound waves and the return echoes to reflect the structures beneath the skin. The ability to measure different echoes reflected from a variety of tissues allows a shadow picture to be constructed. Ultrasound is used to screening and diagnosis for disease, also to aid in treatment of diseases or conditions. Some common uses are to help physicians guide needles into the body, evaluate blockages to blood flow, assess the progression of pregnancy, evaluates the heart, and etc. During the procedure, a jelly-like substance is applied to the skin to improve the transmission of sound through tissue. The...