Compare and contrast the different counselling approaches
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Counselling is a relatively recent phenomenon and is currently enjoying enormous popularity (Dryden and Mytton, 1999) It is a method of talking treatment that offers people a chance to change how they feel and to live better.
Counselling is about understanding the human condition riddled with contradictions. “We live in a constant tension between opposites: moving between wakefulness and sleep, confidence and doubt, belonging and isolation, sickness and health, life and death.” (Deurzen 1998 pg1) Exposure to these contradictions creates emotions that can easily shift us out of ...view middle of the document...
Although Freud tried to find access to the unconscious by hypnosis he was more successful using his technique of “free association”. “Freud believed he was able painstakingly to arrive at the kernel of the individual’s conflict – often some idea, memory, or emotional event too painful or unacceptable to be allowed freely into consciousness, and which had been repressed into unconscious.” (Brookes and Wanigarante; 2003 pg 43) Later Freud added the use of slips of the tongue, jokes and dreams as tools to access the unconscious.
Freud believed that our main issue is conflict caused by our primitive drives. The primitive drives of the unconscious are conflict with the rules, structures and prohibitions that the infant acquired from parents, teachers and society. To avoid the conflict, “unacceptable” ideas and impulses are repressed out of consciousness (and memory), but the pressure from the unconscious to discharge these unacceptable thoughts remains. The part of the mind from which these primitive drives arose is called the id; the-super ego is a part of the mind which follows the rules and prohibition. Somewhere between these two is ego: caught in conflict between the drives and censorship of super-ego.
PD counselling attempts to help the client develop insight into deep-rooted problems that are often thought to stem from childhood. PD works through defences which are seen as strategies that a person employs to avoid facing aspects of the self which are felt to be threatening (Jacobs, 2010). PD counselling aims to bring the unconscious into conscious awareness so that the client may gain insight and understanding (Dryden and Mytton, 1999).
There is one less obvious level of relating, which is a vital aspect for PD model - transference. “We bring to every relationship patterns of feeling and expectation which spring from our past experience and relationship. These patterns influence the way we perceive and make sense of present relationships. The transference from past to present is by definition unconscious. The transference is most likely to be used by many counsellors as a source of clues about the underlying patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviour.” (Potter, 1997, pg 69)
The counsellor will have their own response towards the transference, this is called counter-transference. The counsellors are not without any personal problems, but the counsellors recognise their limitations and throughout their own therapy they are able to see these. The counter transference is an important part of the counselling process; the counsellor is encouraged to explore this process in supervision.
PD model includes many different schools evolved from Freud original theory: Attachment Theory, Psycho-Analytic Theory, and Object Relations Theory. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Melanie Klein are all widely recognised for further development of the concept and application of psychodynamics.
2.2. CBT Model
2.2.1. Theory and Theorists of CBT Model