Hofstede’s 4 dimensions
Power distance: Society can accept and expect that power is distributed unequally in the organizations and institutions. Power distance has different between large and small. People with large power distance will great acceptance of unequal power, but people with a small power distance want power to be shared equally. Some Asian countries are large power distance and western countries are small power distance.
Uncertainty Avoidance: When a society has threat from ambiguous and uncertain situations, they try to through providing a safe job, setting up more formal rules and beveling experts’ assessment to avoid uncertain situations. Using weak or ...view middle of the document...
In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one’s face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.
Trompenaars’ 7 fundamental dimensions
Relationship with other people
Universalism vs. particularism: describes how person judge other people’s behavior. The universalism believe what is right is always right for everybody in every situation. People strict follow the rules. They always fair everyone is equal no matter family, friends or strange and don’t rely on relationship. The particularism believe what is right in one situation may not be right in another. Everyone is treated as unique. People in such societies treat their family, friends and members of their group as best they can.
Collectivism vs individualism: This is almost congruent compare to Hofstede’s dimension. People work with group or individual. People in collectivism culture believe that the group is more important than the individual. The group provides help and safety, in exchange for loyalty. The group always comes before the individual. People in individualism culture believe in personal freedom and achievement. They believe that you make your own decisions, and that you must take care of yourself.
Neutral vs. affective: This is about people how to express their feelings. In a neutral culture, people make a great effort to control their emotions. Reason influences their actions far more than their feelings. People don't reveal what they're thinking or how they're feeling. The emotions they show are often need others to guess. In an affective culture, people want to find ways to express their emotions, even spontaneously at work. In these cultures, it's welcome and accepted to show emotion.
Diffuse vs. specific: This is talk about how people separate their private and working lives and expressed at the level of an individual affected by a particular situation or action. People who live in specific culture are more open in the public space but very closed in the private one. They can separate their life into different fields and each field does not have any connect. People who live in diffuse culture are more closed in public space but are very open in private space. They connect every field in their life, so each field has relationship with others. For them that everything is personal.
Achievement vs. ascription: whether judge an individual performance results from his religion, origin, sex or age. In achievement cultures, respect someone is based on his or her knowledge and skills. These cultures value performance, no matter who you are. In ascription cultures, people believe that you should be valued for who you are. Power, title, and position matter in these cultures and these roles define behavior.
Relationship to time
Monochronic vs. polychromic: How people in different cultures manage time. Polychromic time management events have a past, present and...