Discuss the Reformation. Analyze its effects on Western Civilization.
The Reformation started during the sixteenth century. The reformation was a religious movement that took place in Western Europe. It was between the Catholics and the Protestants. The reformation began with Marin Luther (1483-1546) a German priest who was well respected by his people. In 1510 Luther traveled to Rome and became distressed by the corruption of the religion, he did not understand how God can issue commands man can not obey. Luther then read the bible to his understanding and saw a passage that read “the just shall live by faith”. Luther discovered ‘Justification by Faith Alone”, meaning God’s justice does not depend on “good works” and religious ceremonies but humans are saved by grace alone.
The Protestant reformation began when Luther offered his ...view middle of the document...
Luther’s pamphlets became published and sold more than a thousand copies. Luther had many supporters. Luther was not killed because people were ready to listen. In 1520 Luther had a fair trail in the city of worms where he goes in front of a group of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Prince Charles V tell Luther to take back everything he has said about the religion, when Luther denies, Charles proclaimed Luther an outlaw. Luther goes into hiding for a year, while in hiding; he translates the bible into German.
Now that almost everyone can get a hold of the bible, everyone is going against the religion. All Protestants rejected the authority of the pope and accepted the bible as the final authority, replaced Latin with the language of their country, believed in Luther’s theological premises, rejected purgatory and obligatory confession and replaced the number of sacraments from 7 to 2 or 3.
The Catholics fought back the Protestants which was called Counter Reformation (1534-1590). They gathered together in Trent and formed the council of Trent to define church doctrine and reform the church. They have 25 meetings in 18 years (1545-1563). The council made a list of books, later on magazines, movies etc. that were forbidden to Catholics, the list was called an index and it was a way of censorship. One of the members of the church was Loyola who started the “society of Jesus” in which member’s takes strict obedience to the pope.
The Reformation of religions had a huge affect on Western Civilization. Reformation was a time when a person can question the religion. It was a time of torn apart religions. Importance of Reformation was it split Europe into two ideological camps. This allowed new ideas to develop and have a chance to become widespread. The Counter Reformation made Catholic Countries firm in their Catholicism and very hard for non-believers to live there.