Intro to psychology
Stacy Vautour sf2 11am
Relapse Prevention for Opiate Abuse
Opiates, Opium, and Opioids are all derived from the opium poppy. Each drug has different characteristics, uses, and effects on the body. Raw opium comes directly from the plant (pod), opiates (e.g. morphine and heroin) are refined from opium, and opioids (e.g. hydrocodone and methadone) are synthetic derivatives of morphine. Many opioids are used for medical reasons; for example, methadone and buprenorphine are used for detoxification, and oxymorphone is used for anxiety and shortness of breath. The most common use for opioids and opiates is pain management.
Heroin, a semisynthetic opioid, was ...view middle of the document...
Although a heroin addict constantly desires and seeks heroin, with possession the loss of control becomes apparent and the search for pleasure quickly turn quite frightening. When it comes to withdrawing from heroin there are some pretty nasty physical symptoms, including â€œgoosefleshâ€, rapid heart rate, diarrhea, muscle cramps, vomiting, nausea, and general aches and pains. Physical withdrawal can last up to a week and can be extremely unpleasant.
Relapse Prevention is a huge part of treatment of opiate addiction. There are two models of relapse prevention. The CENAPS Model, developed by Terrance Gorski, intergrades the disease concept of addiction with biophysical strategies to help maintain abstinence and positive changes in recovery. The Cognitive Social learning Model, developed by Alan Marlett and Helen Arnis, views addiction as overlearned habits. The goal of this model is to locate reinforcing and forbidding consequences of the behavior and studying past situations of success and failure in changing the behavior.
Some General Principles of Relapse Prevention
1. Recognizing that relapse is a process and not something that just happens: Most addicts can become aware of triggers, thoughts, and warning signs way before beginning to use again. They also notice how thoughts of using contribute to progression of substance use. Thoughts of using can start denial patterns, stress relief thoughts, reward thoughts, or self-permission. Itâ€™s necessary to realize the difference between active recovery process and sobriety or dry drunk syndrome.
2. Awareness: To prevent relapse you must constantly be aware of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, motives, and manifestations of urges and cravings. Itâ€™s very important to become aware of and figure out what is necessary to stop negative states from piling up and exploding into unexpected triggers or high risk situations.
3. Identification of High Risk Triggers: A large part of relapse is high risk situations. High risk situations can involve a certain category of triggers that combine interactions between feelings, people, places, and thoughts that are clues that triggers cravings and urges to use. The three most popular high risk situations for relapse are peer pressure, negative emotions, and conflict.
4. Recognition of ongoing Recovery Management: Recognizing that recovery is an ongoing process is a newer trend for addicts. When you consistently attend meetings, develop a sober network, and attend professional aftercare groups this lowers the chances of relapse. Addicts need to recognize that involving family members and close friends in the recovery process is very important when it comes to noticing signs that an individual may not be aware of and for general support in maintaining healthy changes.
5. Change in Lifestyle Activities and Routines: Learning new routines that donâ€™t revolve around substance abuse is a big part of maintaining recovery. When in recovery it is...