Which of the following people would be most severely affected by prolonged vomiting?
a. 3-year-old male
b. 15-year-old male
c. 35-year-old male
d. 35-year-old female
e. 50-year-old male
Extracellular fluid has a
higher sodium content than intracellular fluid.
The predominant intracellular cation is
The predominant extracellular cation is
Which of the following fluid compartments contains the largest volume of water?
b. interstitial compartment
c. intracellular compartment
d. extracellular compartment
Water moves back and forth across the plasma membrane by the process of
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This condition occurs when too much water and solute are taken in at the same time. Although extracellular fluid volume increases, plasma osmolarity may remain normal.
Water output totals ____________ per day.
This condition occurs when water and solutes are lost at the same time. This condition primarily involves a loss of plasma volume. Plasma osmolarity usually remains normal even though volume is low.
Water intake totals ____________ per day.
How many liters of water does the average adult body contain?
Water output includes "insensible loss" fromskin, lungs and GI of ________per day.
This condition occurs when too much water is taken in without solute. Volume increases, but because solute is not present, plasma osmolarity decreases.
This condition occurs when water, but not solute, is lost. It involves a loss of volume but, because solutes are not lost in the same proportion, plasma osmolarity increases.
Water output through urine totals of ________per day.
Water intake includes ____________ from food and beverages and 200 mls from cell metabolism.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
increases water reabsorption in the kidneys.
Intense sympathetic stimulation of the kidney
decreases renal flow.
Autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of
constriction of afferent arterioles.
When aldosterone is absent, sodium reabsorption in the nephron is
Thirst is stimulated by
a. increased osmolality of the blood.
b. decreased blood volume.
c. increased angiotensin II.
d. all of these
all of these
Renin is released by the
Which ions are most important for establishing the resting membrane potential (RMP)?
a. Ca2+ ions
b. Cl- ions
c. K+ ions
d. Mg2+ ions
e. Na+ ions
Which of these normally represents the SMALLEST source of water loss from the body?
c. sensible and insensible perspiration
Which of the following events occurs last?
a. release of renin by the kidney
b. release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex
c. sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules
d. angiotensinogen ® angiotensin I
e. angiotensin I ® angiotensin II
sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules
As the rate of sweat production increases, the amount of sodium lost in the urine
You've been working outside in the hot sun and are dripping wet with sweat. Your fluid intake has been minimal as you have been too busy to stop and get a drink. You would expect
a. your blood osmolality to be low.
b. an increase in the production of urine.
c. aldosterone levels to decrease.
d. ADH levels to increase.
e. ADH levels to decrease.
ADH levels to increase.
Aldosterone secretion may be stimulated by