This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Research Methods Essay

841 words - 4 pages

To understand the use of statistics, one needs to know a little bit about experimental design or how a researcher conducts investigations. A little knowledge about methodology will provide us with a place to hang our statistics. In other words, statistics are not numbers that just appear out of nowhere. Rather, the numbers (data) are generated out of research. Statistics are merely a tool to help us answer research questions. As such, an understanding of methodology will facilitate our understanding of basic statistics.

Validity

A key concept relevant to a discussion of research methodology is that of validity. When an individual asks, "Is this study valid?", they are questioning the ...view middle of the document...

41)." Essentially, the question that is being asked is - "Are the variables under study related?" or "Is variable A correlated (does it covary) with Variable B?". If a study has good statistical conclusion validity, we should be relatively certain that the answer to these questions is "yes". Examples of issues or problems that would threaten statistical conclusion validity would be random heterogeneity of the research subjects (the subjects represent a diverse group - this increases statistical error) and small sample size (more difficult to find meaningful relationships with a small number of subjects).

Internal Validity: Once it has been determined that the two variables (A & B) are related, the next issue to be determined is one of causality. Does A cause B? If a study is lacking internal validity, one can not make cause and effect statements based on the research; the study would be descriptive but not causal. There are many potential threats to internal validity. For example, if a study has a pretest, an experimental treatment, and a follow-up posttest, history is a threat to internal validity. If a difference is found between the pretest and posttest, it might be due to the experimental treatment but it might also be due to any other event that subjects experienced between the two times of testing (for example, a historical event, a change in weather, etc.).

Construct Validity: One is examining the issue of construct validity when one is asking the questions "Am I really measuring the construct...

Other Essays Like Research Methods

Research Methods Essay

790 words - 4 pages Research Method Report Analysis Hypothesis – Asian pupils are more likely to place a higher value on education and have a more positive attitude towards education than black African and white pupils.  We chose to study students of different ethnicities – Black African, White, and South Asian. Specifically, we wanted to find out how different ethnic groups value education and their attitudes towards education. The reason why we chose this

Research Methods Essay

3432 words - 14 pages TITLE 1. Degree name: 2. Degree code: 3. Unit name and level: Research Methods Level 2 4. Student name: 5. Student number: 6. Tutor: 7. Total word count: 3371 CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………………3 Research question……………………………………...6 Literature review……………………………………….7 Research methodology……………………..…………..12 Conclusion……………………………………………...17 Bibliography and References

Research Methods

3052 words - 13 pages research assignment is being done as part of a Study for an Undergrad Research Methods class offered at Albertus Magnus College. This study is one the major assignments within the course, and is required for completion. The goal is to conduct a study: Gender Differences in Seasonal Mood changes. By participating in this study, you will be helping the Undergrad class of Research Methods in completing the required research to complete this study and

Online Research Methods

1170 words - 5 pages Online Research Methods Online marketing research is the process by which companies use the Internet to gather data to evaluate how well a product or service is selling to consumers. The information provided by a careful market analysis conducted online can also identify popular trends that can assist a company in creating a strategy that will get better results. When used properly, online marketing research can be an effective tool that a

Business Research Methods

634 words - 3 pages Business Research Methods Business Research Methods Scenario Outsourcing survey services offers special advantages to managers. A professionally trained staff, centralized-location interviewing, focus group facilities, and computer-assisted facilities are among them. Specialty firms offer software and computer-based assistance for telephone and personal interviewing as well as for mail and mixed modes. Panel suppliers produce data for

Methods in Research

725 words - 3 pages METHODS OF RESEARCH 1. Historical Method Purpose: To reconstruct the past objectively and accurately, often in relation to the tenability of a hypothesis. Example: A study reconstructing practices in the study of social studies in the Philippines during the past fifty years; tracing the history of agrarian reform in the Philippines; Philippine education since 1946; testing the hypotheses that Francis Bacon is the real author of the

Business Research Methods Part Iii

1294 words - 6 pages Business Research Methods, Part III Learning Team C University of Phoenix Applied Business Research & Statistics 561 March 14, 2011 2. Discuss if the study answered the original question. H1: A positive relationship between levels of EI and DR in leaders. H20: No difference in the relationship between levels of EI and DR in mid-level managers and senior managers. H20: No difference in the relationship between

Business Research Methods Part I

841 words - 4 pages Business Research Methods Part I Applied Business Research and Statistics QNT 561 Business Research Methods Part I In a world where the economy has caused so many losses to people, insurance is something that every person should have. Every day, it is reported of people not possessing insurance to cover home damage, car accidents, and even their lives. It would not be so unreasonable to expect the manufacturer or retailer to cover

Business Research Methods Part Ii

802 words - 4 pages Business Research Methods, Part II QNT/561 October 1, 2012 Target Corporation is the second largest discount retailer in the United States but they are making daily strides to gain momentum on the number one, Walmart. There are many problem areas that create deficiencies with customer satisfaction. The Research Design will be used in conjunction with the data collection method, a survey. A well-crafted survey will serve the

Business Research Methods Part Ii

1276 words - 6 pages Business Research Methods Part II Beginning in 2008, Chrysler LLC’s financial situation reached the point where bankruptcy seemed the only viable option for the company. A sharp decline in sales coupled with a struggling economy put Chrysler on the brink of financial collapse. In early spring of 2009, the company had no choice but to file for bankruptcy. This paper will focus on the research data collection along with the collection method. In

Business Research Methods, Part Iii – Starbuck’s

1809 words - 8 pages Business Research Methods, Part III – Starbuck’s QNT/561 October 7, 2012 Business Research Methods, Part III – Starbuck’s In week four, we responded on the Starbucks dilemma of how the organization should go about maintaining faithful customers while disabling the old opinions as times change. As stated, the probability sample design utilized will be in the form of a 10-question survey that will help the organization select a very

Related Papers

Research Methods Essay 2311 Words

2311 words - 10 pages converted into numerical form, which can be statistically analysed. The author recommended that further research is necessary to corroborate the quantifiable affects of football. This would facilitate a more informed debate on how football-related expenditure can be retained within the economy (Johnstone, S., Southern, A. and Taylor, R., 2000).This essay will attempt to critical review for this research, and analysis research methods of this

Research Methods Essay 1708 Words

1708 words - 7 pages also provides for a way to test repeatability and reproducibility. Repeatability and reproducibility is a standard test of research validity. Action Research Action research is “a form of applied research designed to answer a specific school-or classroom-related question” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p. 19). Action research can encompass the other research methods of descriptive, correlational, experimental, or qualitative research. The benefit of

Research Methods Essay 1052 Words

1052 words - 5 pages Psychological Factors Heather Mingee Research Methods Week 10 Assignment 2 Instructor Joseph Davis Psychological Factors The scientific method is an organized way of figuring something out and normally includes six parts (Galgas, 2014). The first step is to state my purpose. For example, for this assignment, my purpose would be to examine the psychological factors affecting how teenagers in an impoverished urban area spend their time

Research Methods Essay 3027 Words

3027 words - 13 pages conclusive solutions. According to Malhotra (2002), unstructured exploratory research methods are based on small samples intended to provide insights and understanding of the problem setting. We will focus on both qualitative research via focus groups and interviews, as well as quantitative research in the form of a survey for customers receiving cold-calling. In this context, in qualitative research the importance is given to words rather than the