2. Literature Review
2.1 The human-animal bond
Pet were found in over 14.6 million in the UK homes due to single households and households comprised of couples without children tend to have pets as replacements for a partner or children (Euromonitor International, 2014a; Euromonitor International, 2014b). In fact, humans and animals have already been associated deeply for a long time, in which animals have been manifested in a variety forms such as food, servant and enemy. Nevertheless, a review of literature has identified the main reasons for this enduring association is companionship such as friends, family members, and owner’s self. Working Party Couticil for Science and Society (1988), ...view middle of the document...
” Consequently, the warm and enduring companionship animals offer and the way in which humans love animals can easily stimulate customer resonance and makes advertisers adopt this human-animal bond when they use animals as persuasive messages.
2.2 Animal and Advertising
Animals can be seen in many print and television advertising. Marketing promotions often use animals as evocative visual symbols to project an image and communicate information implicitly (Feldhamer et al., 2002). Hoggan (1989), cited by Lancendorfer et al. (2008) posits that the effectiveness of using animals in advertisings to increase customers’ awareness is better than using human celebrities.
Previous research clarifies the main reason, animals have been used to depict human characteristics from the earliest days of civilization, such as a dove represents peace and a fox embodies cunning (Robin, 1977 cited by Spears et al. 1996). Therefore, advertisers harness these symbolic meanings as their brand identity in advertising or trademarks to make customers link unconsciously particular products to particular animals, and sometimes animals become endorsers, dubbed ‘brand mascots’ (Brown, 2010 cited by Stone, 2014). For example, Budweiser uses Clydesdale horses as a symbol of power and strength, making customers link to powerful, confident, and strong image (Stone, 2014). This is parallel to Rowland...