REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presented a review of related literature, research and relevant studies conducted that are related to the current study.
Ventura (2006) emphasized the importance of music as a natural venue to develop the child’s brain. She stressed early that music can stimulate the cognitive and emotional development of young minds better. The expert noted that there is no strict rule as to how many hours a day a baby needs to be exposed to music because it can be used as background during feeding or playtime. Music and adult interaction, she said, actually helps a baby form a vast range of vocabulary early in his or her ...view middle of the document...
One reason could be that the soothing rhythm of most classical music is similar to the mother’s heartbeat, which surround the baby from the moment hearing begins in the womb. Music during the Baroque period was found to have the same effect on the mind as classical music. Jazz can uplift emotions, whether joy or sadness. Salsa or Latin music can increase respiration, because it gets you moving. New-age music induces relaxation. Rock stirs passion, but also creates confusion, dissonance and stress. It is not therefore advisable for young people to listen to rock music while studying.
Cayabyab (2000) stated that as a young child, he was exposed to classical music since his mother was an opera singer. That is the reason why he was able to deal with any given situation.
Lozanov (2004) recommended reviewing information while playing slow, Baroque-style or early classical music that pulses at a rate of 76 to 80 beats per minute. That pace parallels the beating of the human heart and encourages relaxation.
According to Howard (2004), the fast beat encourages learning by cooling the brain and stimulating a better mood. Minor keys tend to generate a sad feeling, giving music a reflective quality. Many waltzes, classical pieces, and pop ballads use low tones. Slower beats in a minor key, says warm the brain, making it more alert.
Steiner (2004) stated that music should be felt rather than heard. When applying music correctly, it's a seamless component of the learning, not an add-on. It should not be noticed.
Butland (2002) stated that upbeat music raises our spirits while slow or sad music depresses us; music that evokes happy memories elevates our mood; music that is frenzied or discordant agitates us. There is a physiological basis for these psychological effects: upbeat music stimulates the right side of the brain to produce serotonin, the “happiness” enzyme. Higher levels of serotonin lead to a feeling of happiness and security.
Levitin (2001) suggested that music stimulates our drive to find patterns in the environment. Our brain is constantly trying to make order out of disorder, and music is a fantastic pattern game for our higher cognitive centers.
According to The Center for New Discoveries in Learning (2001), learning potential can be increased a minimum of five times by using this 60 beats per minute music. For example, the ancient Greeks sang their dramas because they understood how music could help them remember more easily.
Ballam (2001) stated that the human mind shuts down after three or four repetitions of a rhythm, or a melody, or a harmonic progression. Furthermore, excessive repetition causes people to release control of their thoughts. Rhythmic repetition is used by people who are trying to push certain ethics in their music.
Doughty (2001) stated that music is not merely a cultural phenomenon but a biological fact of human life—as...