Rural Development, its importance. Possible constraints and potentialsof achieving this Development:
Development being the foremost concern of economists and social scientists has looked at the equity distribution and efficiency of application of natural resources so as to improve the wellbeing of the people. In most countries, the largest percentage of the population resides in rural areas were they survive on low agriculture and livestock productivity. In order to alleviate or mitigate the livelihood of the rural population, policy makers embarked on rural development, despite limited resources particularly money and manpower, as a program that would reach out to a large ...view middle of the document...
• The concepts of development
o This implies a system of views reflecting the level of knowledge about the objective laws of development of social production and the ideas about how to use these laws in practice.
• Economic policy
o This includes a whole series of measures taken e.g. (1) National policies i.e. land tenure systems, commodity pricing and marketing systems, wages etc, (2) Administrative systems –Centralization or decentralization i.e. the definition of relations between the authorities and various stake holders.
o Institutionalism – this is distribution of development responsibility or establishment of the authorities’ position on matters relating to rural development.
Thus, Rural Development programs are designed and implemented by mobilization and allocation of resources to low-income regions and classes like peasant farmers, women, children and the elderly. The development of appropriate skills and implementing capacity and the presence of local institutions to ensure the effective use of the existing resources for continued development of the rural area.
Determination of Rural development economic parameters will require different indicators in formulating tasks relating to the optimal location of production and control of parameters for the rural distribution of goods and services and resources. These include the following:
1. Political, economic and social influence of the rural population
2. Availability or possibility of obtaining ‘accompanying’ resources both locally and nationally
3. The outlined developmental programmes and adopted projects.
Rural development can be defined as the socio –economic measures taken to improve the well being of the rural poor with an emphasis on the vulnerable groups like peasant farmers, women, children and the elderly. Rural development must be self sustainable by the community and socially acceptable.
Uma J. Lele, (1975), defines Rural Development as improving living standards of the mass of the low-income population residing in rural areas and enabling the rural population to sustain the process of development
FAO defines sustainable development as being the management and conservation of the rural resources base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable (FAO 1988).
From the above definitions, there is an increasing recognition that rural development is not just about the farming sector. Maintaining viable and sustainable rural community requires consideration of under questions of social and economic development and the need to take into account the distinct nature of rural...