Safety Management Systems in Aviation
Capt. ELhadi Y. Nour
Introduction to SMS (Safety Management System):
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAQ)'s definition of SMS is "an organized approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures" (ICAO, 2006, 1-2).
One of the most challenging elements of SMS is the creation and nurturing of a safety culture, in which every person, from CEO to new-hire, understands his or her role in maintaining a safe operation, and actively participates in controlling and minimizing ...view middle of the document...
The ERP should describe who has responsibility and authority in various aspects of the response, how the response is conducted, what resources will be available, and so on.
Notifications. The ERP should contain a very clear notification process, so that assistance is available when needed.
Crisis management center. A well managed emergency requires special infrastructure-communications, methods of coordination, quick command and control decision-making. Planning for a crisis management center is essential.
Safety Management Systems enable organizations to identify and manage risk. Managing risk is fundamental, and Safety Management Systems enable us to manage risk far better than before. With this formalized approach, we can identify issues, fix them, and ensure that they stay fixed.
Line Operation Safety Audit (LOSA) is based on a Threat and Error Management (TEM) model, which is a conceptual framework for understanding operational performance in complex environments such as that found in commercial aviation.
According to AC 120-90, LOSA is important for the following reasons (FAA, 2006d, pp. 3-4):
• Threats in the airline's operating environment can be more readily identified.
• Threats from within the airline's operations can be identified.
• The degree of transference of training to the line can be assessed.
• The quality and usability of procedures, such as crew callouts, can be checked.
• Problems in human/machine interface can be more readily identified.
• Pilot shortcuts and workarounds can be identified.
• Safety margins can be assessed.
• A baseline for organizational change can be determined.
• A rationale for the allocation of resources can be determined.
An Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) is entered into voluntarily through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by FAA, an air carrier or a repair station (referred in this notice as "certificate holder"), and, if applicable, an employees' labor union. The intent of the program is to encourage defined groups of certificate holder employees to report possible violations, safety issues and events to an ASAP Event Review Committee (ERC) comprised of one representative from each such party. Because of its capacity to provide early identification of needed safety improvements, an ASAP offers significant potential for incident and accident avoidance. FAA experience to date has clearly established that an ASAP can produce safety-related data that is not available from any other source. FAA limits enforcement actions it takes against employees covered by an ASAP to encourage them to report possible violations and safety problems. In order for a possible violation to be covered under ASAP, the employee's ASAP report ordinarily must be submitted within a time limit specified in the MOU, any alleged violation must be inadvertent and must not appear to involve an intentional disregard for safety, and the...