Schizophrenia And Psychosis And Lifespan Development

1072 words - 5 pages

Schizophrenia and Psychosis and Lifespan Development
Cathy Perry
Psy 410
September 26, 2011
Lara Ashbaugh

Schizophrenia and Psychosis and Lifespan Development
Schizophrenia and lifespan developmental disorders reduce the normal functioning of individuals suffering from them. These disorders consist of components that vary extensively; therefore defining and understanding each component within the individual’s circumstances is of extreme importance. This is especially true when diagnosing childhood disorders. Identifying and understanding these components assists in creating more effective therapeutic applications, intervention, and prevention of these disorders (Hansell & Damour, ...view middle of the document...

Cognitive Components
Research has focused on a specific type of hyper-attentiveness that is common in schizophrenia. Such over-attention, when combined with stressors may exacerbate or create the disorder in individuals with a predisposition. According to Hansell and Damour (2008), “One of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia is the inability to block irrelevant stimuli which may create a predisposition conducive to promoting extraordinary credence to hallucinations and delusions” (p. 490). When affected individuals try to explain their delusional experiences to themselves, further complications arise. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to an equally problematic under attention to important stimuli, leading to withdrawal and apathy (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Behavioral Components
Behaviorists focus on the biological factors that predispose the individual to maladaptive learning, and by reinforcing new behaviors, help the individual to regain a more accurate cognitive perspective. Excessive attention to self and the environment causes schizophrenics to react to stimuli to which the average individual does not. By identifying stimuli to which attention should be given, the individual is taught how to behave normally (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Lifespan Development/Childhood Disorders
Biological Components
Moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation typically have a biological basis. The most significant biological components are genetic abnormalities, metabolic deficiencies, and prenatal/postnatal complications (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a prevalent prenatal developmental disorder. Postnatal complications such as shaken baby syndrome can also cause mental retardation. Learning disorders have genetic influences and are associated with brain abnormalities (National Institutes of Health, 2011). Autism, caused by biological factors, is continued to be addressed by biological factors as underlying predispositions exacerbated by environmental factors.
Emotional Components
Psychodynamic theorists suggest some childhood disorders have contributing factors such as the environment, socioeconomic status, and poor parent-child relationships. Underlying emotional components such as distress are significant contributors to disruptive and attention deficit disorders (National Institutes of Health, 2011). The inability to keep up with other children stigmatizes the affected children, and this causes further psychological damage. Associated behaviors can cause marginalization and cause the emotional distress to exacerbate (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Cognitive/Behavioral Components
Children with learning disorders often develop anxious and depressed emotions regarding their academic difficulties, which manifests frustrations and acting out at school and home. Children with disruptive behavior disorders...

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