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Science, Nervous Systems Essay

913 words - 4 pages

Chapter 7 Science Revision
Nerves and reflex actions:
Two main nervous systems, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord
The PNS is made up of the nerves which connect the CNS to other parts of the body
Nerves act as messengers inside the body carrying information from one part of the body to another
Nerves are made up of nerve cells (neurones)
Neurones or nerve cells carry electrical messages called nerve impulses

Motor neurones carry messages from the CNS to muscles or glands
Sensory neurones carry messages from the sense organs to the CNS
Receptors detect changes in the environment
Stimulus is ...view middle of the document...

Eg. When you go in water and eventually your body stops feeling the cold
Nerve impulses travel through neurons.
Focus on two glands:

Ear:
The pinna directs sound through the auditory canal into eardrum which vibrates and sends vibrations to tiny bones in the middle of the ear, the vibrations move to the cochlea which set hair cells vibrating which convert the vibrations into impulses which then are sent through the auditory nerve to the brain

Eye:
Cones are responsible for colour vision in bright light
Rods are responsible for night vision in dim light
iris
pupil
lens
cornea
aqueous body
ciliary body
vitreous humour (gel)
sclera
optic nerve
blood vessels
fovea
retina

PART | FUNCTION |
Cornea | It protects the eye from harmful matter and from entering the pupil. It controls and focuses the entry of light into the eye. |
Iris | It regulates the amount of light that enters the eye by contracting and dilating. |
Pupil | The pupil is the hole that lets light enter the eye. |
Lens | It focuses light onto the back of the eyeball. |
Vitreous humour (gel) | It holds the shape of the eye together. |
Aqueous humour (water) | Fills the space between the lens and the cornea |
Optic nerve | Transfers visual information formed by the retina to the brain |
Retina | Receives the image seen through your eye and transmits it down the optic nerve |
Conjunctiva | Protects the eye by producing mucus or tears |
Sclera | Is the white outer layer of the eye which protects it from diseases |
Ciliary Body | Contains muscles which change the shape of the lens |
Retinal blood vessels | |

Brain:

Cerebrum: Two main parts of the brain, in humans there are two cerebral hemispheres which are what the cerebrum is divided into (left and...

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