Science of Stars
July 11, 2013
Science of Stars
The information contained in this paper will explain the science of the stars. Other information in this paper will be a description of how astronomical instruments aid astronomers in determining the rotation rate of distant objects, speed, temperature, and composition. Also, the author will provide an explanation of the properties of stars in the Hertzsprung - Russell diagram. In conclusion, the complete lifecycle of the Sun will be explained, along with a determination of where the Sun is in its lifecycle.
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The raw materials that are involved with planet formation are called C-N-O families.
Astronomical instruments help to determine rotation rate of a distant object, temperature, composition and speed. The instruments are divided up into two groups. Group one consists of the instruments used for observing celestial objects an example being the telescope. The telescope allows the object to be view and photographed when it is not able to be seen by the naked eye. The James Webb space telescope allows for the study of distant objects and is able to determine the rate of rotation, temperature and speed of objects this process is called spectroscopy. “Spectroscopy pertains to the dispersion of an object's light into its component colors (i.e. energies). By performing this dissection and analysis of an object's light, astronomers can infer the physical properties of that object such as temperature, mass, luminosity and composition”(Kulesa,1997). This was first used to study objects in 1863 by William Higgins. The discovery was made by using different objects and examining that they give off and absorb different spectrums of light depending on distance. There are three types of spectra that are used to evaluate light. The types are emission spectra, absorption spectrum and continuum spectrum. A star’s brightness is determined by its distance from earth and its luminosity. Every star may have a different level of brightness that is different than the others and there are many factors that influence this. Factors that influence brightness of a star are the temperature, if a star is hotter than another it would glow brighter. The density of a star can affect the brightness and also the distance the star is from Earth would affect the brightness. The closer a star is to the viewer the brighter it may shine or if the star is the largest one in the area it may shine brighter due to the share size difference.
The Hertzsprung - Russell diagram
Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung and American astronomer Henry Noris Russell developed the diagram when they realized a relationship between the surface temperature of a star and its luminosity. The two astronomers used the relationship to develop a type of graph that would identify where each star was in its lifecycle. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram uses the properties of the stars luminosity and temperature. The y-axis or vertical axis is the amount of energy radiating from the stars luminosity or amount of energy radiating from the star and is used on a ratio-scale the reference point being the Sun. The x-axis or horizontal is known as the spectral type and is the star’s surface temperature. In graphing the two properties of the stars the ability to map out where most of the stars are in their lifecycle. In reading a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram a star that is located in the left upper corner would be...