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Scientific Revolution Essay

1214 words - 5 pages

Europe experienced diverse perspectives on the world from various people, both men and women. Their new outlook on the world included new philosophical views, scientific discoveries, and government ideas, consequently resulting in a “modern” way of thinking. Influential men and women during this time were Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, John Locke, Denis Diderot, Maria Theresa and Catherine II.
Galileo Galilei was an influential astronomer due to his confirmation of the Copernican theory and development of the law of inertia. Galileo studied at the University of Pisa, learning about the Aristotelian view of physics. During his studies, he questioned Aristotle’s discoveries. He proved ...view middle of the document...

Finally, the third law stated that the period of time it takes a planet to complete an orbit around the sun is related to the distance the planet is from the sun. Kepler’s findings were proved through mathematical equations instead of speculations as well. Kepler wrote De cometis and Harmonice mundi in which he described his third law of planetary motion. Today, people still use Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion in science and astrology.
John Locke was an English philosopher who was born in 1632. He was the eldest child and only survivor of children in his family of tradesmen and londholders. Later, Locke attended school at Christ Church College where he studied medicine. Many of Locke’s philosophies intermingled with his experiences in science. John Locke developed the theory that all humans learn from experience in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1690. Locke describes his idea that humans are born resembling a blank sheet and are shaped into the person they are from their environment and experience. He also wrote Second Treatise of Civil Government in 1690. In this composition, John expressed his belief that the reason people set up civil government in order to protect the rights of life, liberty, and property. Locke believed that these were the basic rights for all men. Today countries such as the United States of America use John Locke’s philosophies for a basis of government.
Denis Diderot was a French philosopher who was born in 1713. Diderot grew up as the eldest of seven children. His father was prosperous master-cutler and his mother was from a family of tanners. Denis was taught by the Jesuits, and was planning to have a career in law, but decided on another career path. Like many other philosophes, Diderot believed in the reformation and improvement of the human mind. His main goal was to improve humanity through secular thinking and forming basic rights for men. Denis developed the Encyclopedia. This book contained articles that reflected different topics and beliefs. The Encyclopedia was used as an attempt to secularize minds of people and to improve humanity. Although this book was illegal in France, Diderot still published the Encyclopedia to allow people to read it and be educated.
Maria Theresa was an enlightened ruler. She was born in 1717 as the princess of Austria. Her father was the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. To be certain that Maria Theresa would take the thrown, Charles VI developed the pragmatic Sanction in 1713 so that even a female heir could succeed the Hapsburg land. After her father’s death Maria Theresa took over the Austrian Empire. During her reign, Maria Theresa brought many new enlightened thoughts into government. To spread these enlightened...

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