Section 3 Predator Pcb Essay

2362 words - 10 pages

Section 3: Predation (part B), Herbivory, parasitism, popn. Regulation, biocontrol, fisheries, conservation biology.

PREDATION… Continued (Part B)

C. Studying predator effects on prey populations in the field.

1. Manipulative experiments

2. Accidental Experiments

3. Comparative Studies- woodland caribou
-Food limited
-Predator limited

D. Optimal Foraging theory: how do predators choose their diets? (see chapter 3)

*What is the optimum strategy?
= Energy maximization or time minimization
Max En/T

Assumptions about the predator (forager):
-Eating and searching for the next food (prey) item are mutually exclusive activities.
-Items ...view middle of the document...

Plant defense
**Defense Hypotheses:
1. If defenses are costly then expression of defense will depend upon the degree of herbivore damage.
2. If defense are costly, plants will allocate more defensive mechanisms to more valuable tissues.

1. Structural: some evidence indicates that spines protect plants against herbivores.

2. Chemical: plants also invest in chemical defenses

Common metabolites are….
Phenylopropanes---- cinnamon
Terpenoids----------peppermint, catnip
Alkaloids-------nicotine, morphine, caffeine.

**Mutualism: mutual positive interactions between species.

The production and accumulation of some secondary metabolites seems to be advantageous for determining herbivores.


Evidence for cost of chemical defenses
-Plants species either allocate energy to growth or defense but not both.
Slow growing plants do not (CANNOT) replace tissue quickly.

3. Associational defenses
Defense by association with another species
Acacias and ants: a classic example of MUTUALISTIC symbiosis
Ants- protection from herbivores and remove competitors
Acacia- ant food (beltian bodies and extra floral nectaries) and homes.

D. Herbivores on the Serengeti plains

1. Zebra-200, 000

2. Wildebeest--- 1,000,000

3. Thomson’s gazelles----------600,000

ALL MIGRATE IN RESPONSE TO GROWTH OF GRASSES (RAINFALL)

4. Competition?

Competition is weak each different part of the plant.

5. Grazing facilitation?
Wildebeest grazing facilitates a short green lawn of herbs and new grass shoots,

E. Can herbivory benefit plants?
The overcompensation hypothesis: plant growth is stimulates by moderate amounts of grazing. (little evidence for this hypotheses)

Snow Geese as herbivores

F. Herbivores are choosy
Decline in preferred forage was correlated with high population densities.

G. Herbivore irruptions (non-interactive predator-prey systems)

Interacting grazing- Predator (-) (_+) Prey

Non-interactive grazing---- Predator + Prey (+/-) annual weather patterns

Diseases and Parasitism (chapter 13) Dr. Dorn

A. Introduction
- Parasitism: relationship between 2 species in which the parasite depends metabolically on the host and usually harms the host
-Disease: an interaction in which a disease organism lives on or within a host plant or animal, to the benefit of the disease agent and to the detriment of the host

**Disease agents are microparasites (viruses, bacteria, fungi)
** Parasitism normally refers to MACROPARASITES (ticks, tapeworms, trematodes)

B. Compartment models

SIR model with fixed population size

S--- SUSCEPTIBLE
I---INFECTED
R---RECOVERED

Per capita rates are used to model transitions of hosts and persistence of the disease in the host population

Beta- transmission rate per encounter

Growth of infected category: dY/dt=(BXY)/N –VY
Where X= susceptible and Y= infected

**With fixed host population size...

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