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Segment Two Review

1566 words - 7 pages

English 1, Segment Two Exam Review

General Information about the exam
Parallel Structure
Clauses
Inverted Syntax and Diction
Formal vs. Informal Tone
Defining and Evaluating an Argument
Claim and Counterclaim
Logical Evidence
Tone and Style
Point of View
Paraphrase and Summary
Context Clues and Synonyms
Specific Lessons to review before taking the exam
Honors Exam

General Information about the exam
· The exam will include 16 multiple choice questions and 1 short answer.
· If you are an honors student, you will receive an additional 5 short answer questions that relate to your honors material.
· You may use any notes and assignments that you completed in the course
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Example: How can we correctly join these clauses without changing the meaning of the sentence?
“The party was cancelled. We decided to go to the movies instead. “

Answer: The party was cancelled; we decided to go to the movies instead.

Inverted Syntax and Diction
· Diction is word choice. Every writer must be aware of his or her diction in order to be effective with the language. With so many words to choose from that can express similar ideas, essayists and other writers spend much of their time selecting the perfect words for exactly what they want to say.
· An inverted syntax means to reverse the normal order of words in a sentence.
· For example, the verb may come before the subject, or other parts of speech may appear in reverse order. Be sure to observe when this happens in something you read!
· An example of inverted syntax is: “Beautiful are the stars that shine in the sky.”
· It is inverted because our normal syntax would be to say “The stars that shine in the sky are beautiful”.
Formal vs. Informal Tone
· Informal Tone in writing is similar to a conversation. When having a conversation with your friends through talking, email, or texting you are most likely using an informal tone.
· Informal Tone Example: “Hey Mack! What’s up?”
· Formal Tone in writing is used in “professional circumstances.” This would include your school work, conversations with an adult or boss, etc.
· Formal Tone Example: “Hello Mr. Johnson. What tasks would you like me to complete today?”
Defining and Evaluating an Argument
A formal argument is a statement of the reasons you are in favor of or are against an issue. An argument gives you the opportunity to:
· ask someone to accept your position
· change someone’s point of view
· encourage someone to take action
Claim and Counterclaim
1. Claim- The claim is the starting point for any argument. It states your position so others know where you stand on a certain issue.
2. Counterclaim- The counterclaim is the statement of the reasons people might view the issue differently.
Five steps to developing an effective claim:
1. Complete the following sentence: I plan to prove that...
2. Cross out "I plan to prove that." What remains is your clearly stated position.
3. Complete the following sentence: This matters because...
4. Cross out "This matters because." What remains is your purpose for writing.
5. Combine these two thoughts into one sentence; this is your claim.
Example:
Topic- Raising the legal driving age to 18
Claim- Eighteen-year-old drivers are safer and more responsible than younger drivers, many of whom die needlessly in car accidents.
Counterclaim- However, young drivers should learn the rules of driving while they are still under their parents’ supervision.
Thesis statement (combine both the claim and counterclaim of the argument) - Eighteen-year-old drivers are safer and more responsible than younger drivers, many of whom die needlessly in car accidents....

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