Self Regulation Pada Industry Perapotekan Essay

2209 words - 9 pages

Pengaturan Jarak Pendirian Apotek: Suatu Mekanisme Self-Regulation pada Industri Apotek

Pengaturan Jarak Pendirian Apotek:
Suatu Mekanisme Self-Regulation pada Industri Apotek.

I. Latar belakang
Menurut Peraturan Pemerintah No. 25 tahun 1980, Apotek adalah tempat pengabdian profesi seorang Apoteker yang telah mengucapkan sumpah jabatan, yang berfungsi sebagai Sarana Farmasi yang melaksanakan peracikan, pengubahan bentuk, dan penyerahan obat atau bahan baku obat dan Sarana penyalur perbekalan Farmasi yang harus menyebarkan obat yang diperlukan masyarakat secara meluas dan merata.
Berdasarkan data Intercotinental Medicine Service (IMS), pertumbuhan pasar ...view middle of the document...

Tingginya tingkat ekspansi kedua merk apotek tersebut dan tiadanya regulasi pemerintah yang mengatur sebaran pendirian apotek mendorong IAI selaku organisasi profesi menerapkan pengaturan jarak dalam pendirian apotek baru untuk melindungi keberlangsungan apotek mandiri yang sudah lebih awal berdiri pada lokasi tertentu.
Peraturan tersebut awalnya hanya merupakan peraturan organisasi profesi dengan menitikberatkan pada penegakan kode etik profesi, yang tidak diakomodir ataupun diakui oleh pemerintah sebagai penerbit ijin apotek. Penerapan peraturan tersebut pun tidak dilaksanakan oleh seluruh cabang IAI, dan terkonsentrasi di daerah-daerah tertentu seperti Yogyakarta, Solo, dan Purwokerto. Seiring berjalannya waktu, organisasi profesi di beberapa daerah berhasil memperjuangkan peraturan tersebut sehingga disahkan oleh pemerintah setempat, seperti di Kabupaten Bantul melalui Peraturan Bupati Bantul Nomor 49 Tahun 2012 Tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan Bupati Bantul Nomor 25 Tahun 2012 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Apotek Di Kabupaten Bantul dan di Kota Bogor melalui Peraturan Walikota Bogor Nomor 62 Tahun 2010 Tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan Walikota Bogor Nomor 19 Tahun 2006 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Apotek Dan Pedagang Eceran Obat (Toko Obat), yang keduanya mengatur pendirian dan penyelenggaraan apotek baru berjarak pada radius paling sedikit 500 (lima ratus) meter dari apotek yang sudah ada. Hal ini membatasi ruang gerak perusahaan ritel apotek untuk melakukan pengembangan.
Menarik untuk ditelusuri lebih dalam mengenai pengaturan jarak apotek sebagai industry self-regulation dan sebagai strategi non-market industri apotek yang melibatkan asosiasi profesi, pemerintah, dan pelaku usaha, serta dampaknya terhadap pemilihan strategi market pelaku usaha untuk dapat terus meningkatkan performa perusahaan.

II. Industry Self-Regulation
Industry self-regulation adalah sebuah proses regulasi dimana sebuah organisasi pada tingkat industri menetapkan aturan dan standar yang berkaitan dengan perilaku perusahaan dalam suatu industri. (Gunningham & Rees, 1997).
Industry self-regulation umumnya muncul sebagai respon atas lemah atau terlalu kuatnya regulasi pemerintah dalam suatu industri, yang merupakan upaya industri untuk mengatur industri itu sendiri atau mencegah munculnya regulasi dari pihak pemerintah atau pihak lainnya yang dapat memberatkan industri tersebut, memperbaiki opini publik, mempertahankan kelangsungan suatu industri, atau untuk memberikan competitive advantage bagi industri (Gupta & Lad, 1983; Vass & Bartle, 2005; Sharma et al, 2010).
Rees (1988) membedakan self-regulation berdasarkan tingkat keterlibatan pemerintah, yaitu pertama, voluntary self-regulation, dimana baik pembuatan maupun penegakan peraturan dilakukan oleh perusahaan didalam industri, tanpa keterlibatan langsung dari pemerintah. Kedua adalah pengelolaan penuh self-regulation (mandated full self-regulation), dimana berkebalikan dengan voluntary...

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