Serratia Marcescens By Carter Stanley Is A Background Research Paper For A Science Fair Project Based On The Virus Serratis Marcescens And Its Antibiotics Tetracycline And Streptomycin

1171 words - 5 pages

SERRATIA MARCESCENSSerratia marcescens is a pathogen that at one time, was considered to be harmless. However, testing conducted in the 20th century accidentally revealed just the opposite. The pivotal study called "Operation Sea Spray" was conducted in the early 1950's. The United States Army was testing how wind currents affected the spread of biochemical weapons. Giant balloons were filled with Serratia marcescens and floated over the city of San Francisco. The balloons were subsequently burst and the supposed harmless Serratia marcescens was released over the city. Within a matter of days, markedly high increases in pneumonia and urinary tract infections were reported by local doctors. ...view middle of the document...

Laboratory tests used to differentiate among the species are lysine, citrate, indol, TSI, and DNase testing. The gram negative Serratia marcescens is a facultative anaerobe. This means it can live in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It is also identified by a very vibrant red pigment when stored at room temperature. Serratia. marcescens is different from other members of the Enterobactieriaceae family, because it produces the enzymes: DNase, lipase and gelatinase. It is lysine +, citrate +, indol -, +/+ TSI (no gas), and Dnase+. It lives in soil, water, and the intestines. This bacterium can be transmitted by: direct contact, droplets, on catheters, in saline irrigation solutions, and supposed sterile conditions. Serratia marcescens is associated with urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, wound infections, eye infections, and meningitis. Serratia marcescens is also a common cause of nosocomial infections (infections that originate in the hospital environment). Serratia marcescens has many antibiotic resistant properties. Antibiotics are drugs that can reduce or eliminate infections or attack targeted bacteria and fungi. In order to determine if a pathogen is susceptible to an antibiotic scientist usually use a method called the Kirby Bauer Method. This test is conducted by using a petri dish full of agar (a culture medium for bacteria), a paper disc impregnated with the antibiotic, and then a sample of the bacteria. The bacteria is placed on the agar and then cultured so that it uniformly covers the whole petri dish. The disc containing the antibiotic is then placed on the agar. After a few hours or days the dish is examined and if there is a zone around the disc where there is no bacterial growth, then the antibiotic works, and the bacteria is sensitive to that antibiotic. If the area around the disc shows bacterial growth or the change is extremely minute, then the bacterium is resistant or shows resistance to that antibiotic. Tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic produced by a soil actinomycete of the genus streptomyces. Actinomycetes are found in the leaves of healthy plants. Tetracycline has a yellow crystalline form and is used in treatment for many diseases which include a wide range of gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Many uses include the treatment of Rocky Mountain Fever, Tick and Typhus fever, pneumonia, upper-respiratory infections, gonorrhea, urinary tract infections, serious acne, trachoma, and pink eye. Its primary use is as a replacement drug for patients who are allergic to penicillin. Tetracycline also has some side effects such as vulnerability...

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