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Social Behaviour Essay

2344 words - 10 pages

Social behavior
Lecture - 11
Reference; Chapter 16, Essentials of Psychology by Coon

What Is Social Psychology ?
• Scientific studies of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations; how people act in the presence (actual or implied) of others • Need to Affiliate: Desire to associate with other people; appears to be a basic human trait. • Experiment

contd

Experiment
• We may conclude - „Misery loves company‟ • Later experiment – women expected to be shocked were given choice to wait with shock victims, others or alone. • In short „misery loves miserable company‟ • In General – We prefer to be with people in circumstances similar to our own

Social Comparison ...view middle of the document...

We assume that beautiful people are intelligent, warm, witty etc. But

Interpersonal Attraction
• Competent: When people display a high degree
of knowledge, ability, or proficiency

• Similarity: Extent to which two people are alike in
terms of age, education, attitudes, and so on
– Similar people are attracted to each other – Selection of mate

Self-Disclosure
• Process of revealing one‟s private thoughts, attitudes, feelings and personal history to others – Should be used cautiously and sparingly – Disclosure also requires a degree of trust. – Many play it safe or “close to the vest” with people they do not know well. • Reciprocity: Moderate self disclosure leads to reciprocity (a return in kind) • Overdisclosure: disclosure that exceeds what is appropriate for a relationship or social situation

GROUPS, SOCIAL INFLUENCE, AND CONFORMITY

Groups
• Participation in various groups is a basic fact of social life. • How do groups influence our behavior and how does group membership affect individual behavior? • There are many overlapping social groups • In each group we occupy a position in the structure of the group (social roles)

Groups
• Social Roles: Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social positions (e.g., daughter, mother, teacher, President ) – Ascribed Role: Assigned to a person or not under personal control – Achieved Role: Attained voluntarily by special effort (teacher, doctor, scientist etc)

• Roles streamline daily interactions by anticipating the behavior of others. However, roles may have a negative effect too (Role Conflict).

Groups
• Status: – A person‟s social position in the group OR level of social power and importance.
– Higher status bestows special powers and privileges. (example; phone booth-dime)

• Norms: Widely accepted but usually unspoken
standard for appropriate behavior.

– Example; a. singing loudly in a gathering b. Littering

Fig. 18.1 Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering. The prior existence of litter in a public setting implies that littering is acceptable. This encourages others to “trash” the area. (From Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990.)

Groups
• Group Structure: Network of roles, pathways
communication, and power in a group.

• Group Cohesiveness: Degree of attraction/
affiliation among group members commitment to remaining in the group. – Cohesive groups work better together or their

Attribution
• Making inferences about the causes of one‟s own behavior and others‟ behavior. • We may form impressions of people from only the smallest shreds of evidence. May be right or wrong but it effects how we act in social situations. • How do we fill in the „person behind the mask‟. Example- food External Causes: Assumed to lie outside a person Internal Causes: Assumed to lie within the person

Attribution
• Effects of such interpretations. (Macy‟s example: party, tabu) Social Perception • Fundamental Attribution Error:...

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