Lecture - 11
Reference; Chapter 16, Essentials of Psychology by Coon
What Is Social Psychology ?
• Scientific studies of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations; how people act in the presence (actual or implied) of others • Need to Affiliate: Desire to associate with other people; appears to be a basic human trait. • Experiment
• We may conclude - „Misery loves company‟ • Later experiment – women expected to be shocked were given choice to wait with shock victims, others or alone. • In short „misery loves miserable company‟ • In General – We prefer to be with people in circumstances similar to our own
Social Comparison ...view middle of the document...
We assume that beautiful people are intelligent, warm, witty etc. But
• Competent: When people display a high degree
of knowledge, ability, or proficiency
• Similarity: Extent to which two people are alike in
terms of age, education, attitudes, and so on
– Similar people are attracted to each other – Selection of mate
• Process of revealing one‟s private thoughts, attitudes, feelings and personal history to others – Should be used cautiously and sparingly – Disclosure also requires a degree of trust. – Many play it safe or “close to the vest” with people they do not know well. • Reciprocity: Moderate self disclosure leads to reciprocity (a return in kind) • Overdisclosure: disclosure that exceeds what is appropriate for a relationship or social situation
GROUPS, SOCIAL INFLUENCE, AND CONFORMITY
• Participation in various groups is a basic fact of social life. • How do groups influence our behavior and how does group membership affect individual behavior? • There are many overlapping social groups • In each group we occupy a position in the structure of the group (social roles)
• Social Roles: Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social positions (e.g., daughter, mother, teacher, President ) – Ascribed Role: Assigned to a person or not under personal control – Achieved Role: Attained voluntarily by special effort (teacher, doctor, scientist etc)
• Roles streamline daily interactions by anticipating the behavior of others. However, roles may have a negative effect too (Role Conflict).
• Status: – A person‟s social position in the group OR level of social power and importance.
– Higher status bestows special powers and privileges. (example; phone booth-dime)
• Norms: Widely accepted but usually unspoken
standard for appropriate behavior.
– Example; a. singing loudly in a gathering b. Littering
Fig. 18.1 Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering. The prior existence of litter in a public setting implies that littering is acceptable. This encourages others to “trash” the area. (From Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990.)
• Group Structure: Network of roles, pathways
communication, and power in a group.
• Group Cohesiveness: Degree of attraction/
affiliation among group members commitment to remaining in the group. – Cohesive groups work better together or their
• Making inferences about the causes of one‟s own behavior and others‟ behavior. • We may form impressions of people from only the smallest shreds of evidence. May be right or wrong but it effects how we act in social situations. • How do we fill in the „person behind the mask‟. Example- food External Causes: Assumed to lie outside a person Internal Causes: Assumed to lie within the person
• Effects of such interpretations. (Macy‟s example: party, tabu) Social Perception • Fundamental Attribution Error:...