This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Social Exchange Theory Essay

866 words - 4 pages

Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social exchange theory posits that human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives. The theory has roots in economics, psychology and sociology. Social exchange theory features many of the main assumptions found in rational choice theory and structuralism. Social exchange theory was introduced in 1958 by the sociologist George Homans with the publication of his work "Social Behavior as Exchange". He defined social exchange as the ...view middle of the document...

Blau felt that if individuals focused too much on the psychological concepts within the theory, they would refrain from learning the developing aspects of social exchange. Blau emphasized technical economic analysis whereas Homans concentrated more on the psychology of instrumental behavior. Richard Emerson's early work on the theory intertwined with both Homans and Blau's ideas. From Homan's ideas, he believed social exchange theory was based on reinforcement principles. According to Emerson, Exchange is not a theory but a framework of from which other theories can converge and compared to structural functionalism. Emerson's perspective was similar to Blau's since they both focused on the relationship power had with the exchange process. Emerson says that social exchange theory is an approach in sociology that is described for simplicity as an economic analysis of noneconomic social situations. Exchange theory brings a quasi-economic more of analysis into those situations. Simple social exchange models assume that rewards and costs drive relationship decisions. Both parties in a social exchange take responsibility for one another and depend on each other. The elements of relational life include: Costs are the elements of relational life that have negative value to a person, such as the effort put into a relationship and the negatives of a partner. Costs can be time, money, effort etc. Rewards are the elements of a relationship that have positive value. Rewards can be sense of acceptance, support, and companionship etc. As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships. The social-exchange perspective argues that people calculate the overall worth...

Other Essays Like Social Exchange Theory

This Essay Helps To Better Unstand Psychology Terms

1521 words - 7 pages regulations they have to abide by. Our brother or sisters know who they are when we flash certain symbols, calls, or hand shakes.ROLE THEORY: This theory assumes that people behave according to the roles assigned to them, fulfilling the normative demand associated with their positions in social hierarchies. The major role that I have is that of being a daughter, a sister, and a friend.SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY: Social Exchange Theory is a social

Examining the Social World Essay

2467 words - 10 pages constructing their social environments, or how their social positions shape their constructions • Main criticisms: – Neglects macro-structures – Difficult to study concepts like “mind” and “self” • Key theorists: George H. Mead, the Iowa School Ballantine, Roberts, and Korgen. Our Social World: Condensed, Fourth Edition. © 2015 SAGE Publications Micro-to-Meso Level Theories Rational choice theory (or exchange theory) • Main ideas

Social Hierarchy in Marxism

1242 words - 5 pages What is the relevance of the term “social hierarchy” to the Marxist theory of thought? I will explore this question using a definition of social hierarchy which states that it is a stratification of prestige and power. In Marxist theory of thought, who has power is defined by who owns the means of the production, meaning the resources, technology and human labour. Although there are many different types of social hierarchies, depending on

Social Theories And The Family

1332 words - 6 pages /1G2-3045301881.html Rank, M., R., & LeCroy, C., W. (July1983). Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory Family Relations Vol. 32, No. 3 pp. 441-448 Published by: National Council on Family Relations Article Stable URL: Vissing, Y. (2011). Introduction to Sociology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from

Psychology and Asd

1262 words - 6 pages or food provides reinforcement and the giving of the exchange of the card describes the desired response. Turning now to the second theory which like behaviourism has application to the health issue in question: namely ASD 1n the 1940s Abraham Maslow introduced his theory of psychology of a hierarchy of needs. Although not presented this way by Maslow these needs are often shown in a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid addressing the


689 words - 3 pages of being poor” (Shultz, 1979). Existing empirical evidence on the impact of macroeconomic variables on agriculture remains mixed and inconclusive. This paper re-examines the dynamic relationship between monetary policy variables and agricultural prices using alternative vector auto regression (VAR) type model specifications. Directed acyclic graph theory is proposed as an alternative modeling approach to supplement existing modeling methods

Economic Theory of Milton Friedman

1695 words - 7 pages way producing an enormous writing on the subject, and advancing the act of unreservedly coasting exchange rates. Friedman was likewise known for his work on the consumption function theory, the permanent income theory (1957), which Friedman himself alluded to as his best exploratory work. This work fought that level headed purchasers would spend a relative measure of what they saw to be their permanent income. Windfall gains would mainly be

Enviromental Psychology

719 words - 3 pages ancestors when looking at socialization, reproduction, learning language, cooperation and categorizing living things (Clayton & Myers, 2009). “Evolutionary psychology has been applied to many problems associated with social exchange and threat, such as cooperation, trust, reciprocity, and detecting cheaters.” (Clayton & Myers, 2009, p. 79) The evolution theory is based upon a human acting in different ways due to genetics. For example, if a person were

Emphasizing the Role of the State: the Legality of Same-Sex Marriage

966 words - 4 pages Emphasizing the Role of the State: The Legality of Same-Sex Marriage The social contract theory holds that humans living in the state of nature surrendered their personal freedom to their government in order to promote the safety and wellbeing of all. The social contract gives rights to both citizens and their government. Just as the rights of citizens are limited by legal constraints, the doctrine of the separation of church and state is one

Sexual Assault Against Female in the Military

1073 words - 5 pages underlying the ever-increasing levels of sexual assault, and also the costs and rewards of social systems (Younts & Mueller, 2001). The weakness of the theory, in its application to the situation, included that it neglected the cultural contexts surrounding the abuse and assault of the female officers. The second weakness was that it disregarded the social and financial exchange used to foster the aggression and to keep it hidden (Younts

Human Development

1061 words - 5 pages their own interests but let others do the same. What is right involves equal exchange. Individual’s moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment Level 2 Conventional Level Intermediate Internalization Stage 3 Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity Individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgements Stage 4 Social System

Related Papers

Evolutionary Change: The Invisible Hand And Money

2454 words - 10 pages -organization of a structure or a pattern. These social institutions spontaneously come into existence. They are complex and self-maintaining mass phenomena. Reinforcing this point, Adam Smith wrote in The Theory of Moral Sentiments that men aiming at the “gratification of their own vain and insatiable desires” are “led by an invisible hand” in such a way that they “without intending it, without knowing it, advance the interest of society and afford means

Motivation Theories Essay

555 words - 3 pages SOCIAL EXCHANGE AND EQUITY THEORY Social exchange and equity theory revolve around the balance between efforts and rewards in organizations. The individual-organization exchange relationship addresses the contributions and demands that each party makes in the relationship. A. Demands and Contributions 1. Demands Needs form the basis for the expectations or demands placed on organizations by individuals

Development Of Friendship Between Roommates Essay

1063 words - 5 pages exchange might become more communal" (347). Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory is heavily drawn from Thibaut and Kelly's theory of social exchange. Altman and Taylor believe that the nature of social exchange can foretell when people will self-disclose, as hypothesized by social penetration. The social exchange theory shows: People desire to maximize their outcomes (the end result of what is happening) and minimize their costs (what it

Finance Management Essay

1082 words - 5 pages above 9. Exchange rate quotation methods are________ a. Direct and direct b. Indirect and indirect c. Direct and indirect d. None of the above 10. International Fisher effect or generalized version of the Fisher effect is a combination of_______ a. PPP theory and Fisher‟s open proposition b. Fisher‟s open and closed proposition c. PPP theory and Fisher‟s closed proposition d. None of the above Part Two: 1. Write a short note on