FUNCTIONALISM – MERTON – 3 MARKS
WHY IS MERTONS THEORY CALLED STRAIN THEORY?
Merton believed that when societal norms, or socially accepted goals, such as the 'American Dream,' place pressure on the individual to conform, they force the individual to either work within the structure society has produced, or instead become members of a deviant subculture in an attempt to achieve those goals.
NAME TWO OF THE RESPONSES TO THE STRAIN?
non-utilitarian, malicious, and negativistic(Grady)
SUBCULTURAL THEORY- 8 MARKS
1.WHAT CONCEPTS DO WE ASSOCIATE WITH THE FOLLOWING THEORISTS? ( 4 MARKS)
A.COHEN- folk devil/moral panic
CLOWARD & OHLIN- subcultures
MILLER- class values
2.WHAT IS MATZA’S CRITICISM OF SUBCULTURAL THEORY? Everyone has a subcultural value there are no groups or distinctive subculture deviance is everywhere
3.WHAT IS KOREMS COMMENT ON ...view middle of the document...
TARGET HARDENING- using security to protect society
UNDERCLASS- people at the bottom of society who are poor
ZERO TOLERANCE- automatic punishment for crime
BROKEN WINDOW- fixing society before it gets worse
CAPABLE GUARDIAN- someone in authority who is there to watch that your not being deviant
DISPLACEMENT- when putting something out of place such as a social group
INTERACTIONISM- 12 MARKS
DEFINE THE FOLLOWING: 9 MARKS
PRIMARY DEVIANCE- looks at the act rather than the person
SECONDARY DEVIANCE- looks at the person and labels them deviant
MORAL ENTREPRENEUR- individual group which aims to influence norms
DEVIANT CAREER- live your life as a deviant person
MASTER STATUS- helps indentify characteristics of individual
MORAL PANIC- anxiety or alarm of a problem that threatens society
FOLK DEVIL- someone who is a bad influence on society
MORTIFICATION OF SELF- inmates are degraded and treated unhumanly
NEGOTIATION OF JUSTICE
2.WHAT DO INTERACTIONISTS THINK OF MENTAL ILLNESS?
3.OUTLINE 2 CRITICIMS OF INTERACTIONIST THEORIES OF DEVIANCE
Labelling theory fails to explain why people are deviant in first place. Once someone is labelled deviant they follow through.
MARXISM 12 MARKS
1.WHAT AREA OF CRIME ARE TRADITIONAL MARXIST INTERESTED IN? crime is inevitable part of capitalists.
2.WHAT TWO THEORIES DO RADICAL/ NEW CRIMINOLOGY BRING TOGETHER?
3.HOW MANY POINTS ARE THERE IN TAYLOR WALTON AND YOUNGS THEORY?
4. WHAT DOES GILROY MEAN BY THE MYTH OF BLACK CRIMINALITY? Every black person is assumed to be deviant or criminal
5.HOW DOES HALL TRY AND LINK THE ISSUE OF ‘MUGGING’ TO A CRISIS IN HEGEMONY? He says that we need to police the crisis
6. WHY DOES HE THINK CRIME IS UNLIKELY TO BE A ‘CONSCIOUS POLITICAL ACTION’
7.GIVE A CRITICISM OF RADICAL CRIMINOLOGY
8.WHAT THREE CONCEPTS DO THE NEW LEFT REALIST INTRODUCE? (3 MARKS)
9. WHY ARE THEY CRITICAL OF THE BRITISH CRIME SURVEY FIGURES? People lie and make things up