Solid Waste Incinerator Essay

2296 words - 10 pages

System for Incineration of Solid Wastes Introduction The demands of modern society create wastes, which is increasing as the standard of living is increasing. The most effective way of dealing with the problem is to reduce the amount of waste generated. This will mean process modification or generating markets for waste stream, or recycling recovery etc. All efforts are being taken in industry and public to reduce the waste, but it will not be possible to eliminate waste totally.Environmental regulations and many other factors make it more than necessary to ensure that the contaminated and non Bio-degradable materials are no longer tipped on the rubbish heaps. These materials have to be ...view middle of the document...

The waste Incineration produces the flue gases, which will have to be treated to limit the pollutants to the emission standards laid down by the authority.Types of Solid waste Incinerator There are several types of solid waste incinerators; selection of the type of incinerator is very critical. It depends upon type/nature of waste, quantity of waste, socio-economic factors.The main types of incinerators are "" (1) Open Burning- The oldest method, where the waste is pilled on the ground and burnt without the aid of specialty combustion equipment. This results in excessive smoking and high particulate emission and also presents a fire hazard.(2) Single chamber incinerator "" In this incinerator the waste in burnt inside a chamber. The equipment may have a firing system to ignite the waste. (Refer fig 1). This type of Incinerators also produces smoke and excessive air pollution. To control the combustion sometimes afterburners are provided, also draft control dampers are added. This type is used for burning domestic waste in localities.(3) Open pit Incinerators "" This type is developed for controlled incineration of explosive wastes. This type of incinerator is constructed with open top and large number of closely spaced air nozzles are provided for air blowing (refer fig 2). The incinerators are constructed above or below the ground. The walls are refractory lined or earthen trenches. The air is blown at high velocity creating a high degree of turbulence. Burning produces temperatures above 1100 deg C and has relatively low smoke and particulate discharge. However the exhaust emission is uncontrollable and not acceptable in modern day air pollution norms.(4) Multiple Chamber Incinerator "" This consist of a primary chamber which is used for combustion of solid waste and a secondary chamber which provides the residence time and supplementary fuel for combustion of unburned gaseous products and soot discharged from primary. The multiple chamber incinerators can be further classified as the Retort type and the "In-line" type.(a) Retort incinerator "" This is a compact unit with internal baffles. The baffles are places to guide the combustion gases through 90 deg turns in horizontal and vertical directions. This helps in ash dropout. The primary chamber has an elevated grate for discharge of waste and an ash pit for ash collection. (Refer fig 3). Overfire and underfire air is provided in the primary chamber grate. A blower supplies this air in controlled form. The flue gases exit the primary chamber into the secondary. Air ports are provided here. Supplementary fuels are provided in primary and secondary whenever required. The equipment has low particulate emissions and can meet air pollution control standards.(b) In-line Incinerator "" This is in principle similar to retort type, but the flow of combustion gases is straight throughout axially with abrupt changes in flow direction only in vertical direction. The large airborne particles settle out due...

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